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CARICATURE 589 Jank and R. M. Eichler, who work with a delightful earnest but light-hearted, armed with the mightier sword bonhomie. Among the draughtsmen on the Narrenschiff of the ridiculing pen, assailed the monster ensconced in his (The Ship of Fools), Hans Baluschek is worthy of mention treasure-cave, and after a long battle won a brilliant as having made the types of Berlin life all his own ; and victory. Nast did not always rely on a mere picture to while this paper gives us for the most part inoffensive carry his thrust; often his cartoon consisted of only a satire on. society, Simplicissimus, first printed at Munich minor figure or two looking at a large placard on which and then at Zurich, under the editorship of Albert Langen, a ong and poignantly-worded attack was delivered in shows a marked Socialist and indeed Anarchist tendency, co c type. At other times the most ingenious pictorial subjecting to ridicule and mockery everything that has subtlety was displayed. This long series runs almost the hitherto been held as unassailable by such weapons; it whole gamut of caricature, from downright ridicule to the reminds us of the scathing satire of Honore Daumier in most lofty denunciation. A very happy device was the La Caricature at the time of Louis Philippe. Thomas representation of Tweed’s face by a money-bag with only Theodor Heine is unsurpassed in this style for his power dollar marks for features, a device which, strangely enough, of expression and variety of technique. Here we admire made a curiously faithful likeness of the “ boodle”-loving his delicate draughtsmanship ; there he gives us the broad despot. When, finally, Tweed took to flight, to escape and monumental grotesque; or, again, we find him imprisonment, he was recognized and caught, it is said, drawing his figures with the heavy line of heraldic entirely through the wide familiarity given to his image in ornament. His laughter is often insolent, but he is more Nast s cartoons. Though Nast kept up for many years often the preacher, scourge in hand, who ruthlessly a running fire of comment on the legitimate subjects open unveils all the dark side of life. Next to him come to an alert and brilliant caricaturist (a cartoon on Napoleon Paul, the incomparable limner of student life and III. being one of his best works), and though he had the manners and customs of the Bavarian populace • technical skill enough to illustrate many subjects well (an E. Thony, the wonderfully clever caricaturist of the annual Santa Claus picture being an important yearly airs and assumption of the Prussian Junker and the event in the nursery world), he will always be remembered Prussian subaltern; J. C. Eugh and F. von Regnieck, who for having earned one of the most direct and most difficult make fun of the townsman and political spouter in biting material victories ever granted to caricature. and searching satire. The standard of caricature is at the When Nast retired from Harper's Weekly he was sucpresent time a high one in Germany; indeed, the modern ceeded by Charles Green Bush (born at Boston, 1872), adoption of the pen-line, which has arisen since the who speedily showed his ability to wear the mantle well! impressionists in oil-painting repudiated line, had its With even larger technical resources, he has poured forth origin in the influence of caricature. (r. mr.) a series of cartoons of remarkable evenness of skill and interest; he soon left weekly for daily journalism. Mr United States.—The proverbial irreverence of the Ameri- Bush was, in 1901, the recognized dean of American can mind even towards its most cherished personages and caricature. He has never won, single-handed, such a ideals has made it particularly fallow ground for the battle as Nast’s, but his drawings have a more general, growth of caricature. The seeds of this, as of the other perhaps a more lasting interest. When he left Harper's arts in whose cultivation America is now so strenuously Weekly he was succeeded by W. A. Rogers, who was called engaged, were borne across the ocean on the winds of in from general illustration and has composed many immigration. They were slow in taking root, and the first ingenious and some telling cartoons. growths led a precarious and stunted existence, in sharp The vogue which, through Nast, Harper's Weekly gave contrast with their present prevalence and prosperity, to caricature, prepared the way for the first purely comic which flourish in places even to rankness. In the early weekly that escaped the grim fate which frequently period. of American caricature, almost the only native attends the birth of comic papers. This was Puck, name is that of F. O. C. Darley, an illustrator of some founded by two Germans, and for long published in a importance) the other names include the engraver Paul German as well as an English edition. It is worth noting Revere (chiefly famous for a picturesque exploit in the that not only the founders but the spirit of American War of Independence); a Scotsman, William Charles ; the caricature have been rather German than English, the Englishmen, Matt Morgan and F. P. Bellew j and the American comic papers more closely resembling FlieGermans, Thomas Nast and Joseph Keppler. gende Blatter, for example, than Punch. One of the The name of Thomas Nast overshadows and sums up founders of Puck was Joseph Keppler, long its chief American political caricature, as the word Homer typifies caricaturist. It has cast its influence generally in favour Greek epopee. Nast, who was born in Bavaria, 27th Sep- of the Democratic party. The Republican party soon tember 1840, was brought to America at the age of six ; and found a champion in Judge, a weekly which resembles as his training and all his interests were strongly Ameri- Puck closely in its crude-coloured pages, though somecan, he maybe forgiven the accident of birth. At fourteen what broader and less ambitious in the spirit and execuhe was an illustrator on Leslies Weekly, and was sent at tion of its black-and-white illustrations. These two twenty to England to illustrate the famous Sayers-Heenan papers have kept rather strictly to permanent staffs, and prize-fight. He then went as recorder of Garibaldi’s have furnished the opening for many popular draughtsmen, warfare. He returned to America known only as an such as Bernhard Gillam (died 1896), and his brother, illustrator. The Civil War did not awaken his latent Victor Gillam; J. A. Wales; E. Zimmerman, whose exgenius till 1864, when he published a cartoon of fierce tremely plebeian and broadly treated types often obscure irony against the political party which opposed Lincoln’s their genuine observation and Falstaffian humour; Grant re-election and advocated peace measures with the Southern Hamilton; Frederick Opper, for many years devoted to confederacy. This cartoon not only made Nast famous, the trials of suburban existence, more recently concerned but may be said to contain the germ of American in combating the trusts; C. J. Taylor, a graceful caricature; for all that had gone before was too crude in technician ; H. Smith; Frank A. Nankivell, whose pretty technique to pass muster even as good caricature. athletic girls are prone to attitudinizing; J. Mortimer The magnificent corruption of Tammany Hall under the Flagg; F. M. Howarth; Mrs Frances O’Neill Latham, leadership of Alderman Tweed, the first of the great munici- whose personages are singularly well modelled and alive, pal “bosses,’’gaveNast a subject worth attacking. Siegfried, and Miss Baker Baker, a skilful draughtswoman of animals.