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Sir S. Duncombe in 1634. It is still to be seen in use university town of Giessen as a docent of philosophy, beat the public baths at Ischl in Austria, and also in the coming an extraordinary professor there a few years later. city of Bath, England, where a revival of interest in this In 1853 he was appointed professor at the University of mode of transit in connexion with the medical baths has Munich, lecturing mainly on aesthetics. An avowed enemy of Ultramontanism, he contributed by his writings in no small degree to make the idea of German unity more palatable to the South Germans. Carriere identified himself with the school of Fichte as one who held the theistic view of the world which aimed at reconciling the contradictions between deism and pantheism. Among his works may be mentioned : Der Kolner Dom als freie Deutsche Kirche, Die philosophische Welt-Anschauung der Refarmationszeit, and Die sittliche Weltordnung. He died in Munich on 19th January 1895. Carrington, Richard Christopher (1826-1875), English astronomer, son of a brewer at Brentford, was born in London on 26th May 1826. Though intended for the Church, his studies and tastes inclined him to astronomy, and with a view to gaining experience in the routine of an observatory he accepted the post of observer in the University of Durham. . Finding, Fig. 5. however, that there was little chance of obtaining instrutaken place of late years. The Sedan can be taken into ments suitable for the work which he wished to undertake, the bedroom, and the invalid is conveyed without exposure he resigned that appointment and established an observato the outer air into the mineral-water bath, and, after tory of his own (1854) at Redhill. Here he devoted bathing, carried home again. The poles are so arranged three years to a survey of the zone of the heavens within that the chair may be carried up and down stairs and still 9 degrees of the North Pole, the results of which are preserve its horizontal position. contained in his Redhill Catalogue of 37S5 Stars. His The Bath-chair, with a folding head, which can be used investigation of the motion of sun-spots, in which he open or closed, with a glass front, mounted on three or determined the elements of the sun’s rotation, especifour wheels, can be drawn or pushed by hand (Fig. 6). ally his important discovery of a systematic drift of If required to be drawn by a donkey or small pony, the photosphere, in virtue of which the time of rotation of a spot varies according to the particular solar latitude at which it breaks out, is the work with which his name will be most closely associated. He died on 27th November 1875. (A- a. r.*) Car rod us, John Tiplady (1836-1895), English violinist, was born on 20th January 1836 at Keighley, in Yorkshire. He made his first appearance as a violinist in his native town at the age of nine, and had the advantage of studying with Molique at Stuttgart, where he made such progress that on his return to England in 1853 Costa got him engagements in the leading orchestras. He was a member of the Covent Garden Opera orchestra from 1855, and succeeded Sainton as leader there in 1869. He died “ in harness,” for his death took place at Hampstead on 13th July 1895, within a very few hours of the close of a performance. For many years it is then mounted on four wheels, with the usual he had led the Philharmonic orchestra and those of turning arrangement. James Heath, of Bath, was the the great provincial festivals. He published several pieces inventor. He flourished rather before the middle of the for violin solo, and was a very successful teacher. 18th century, and, though he may not have foreseen it, Carson, a city of Nevada, U.S.A., capital of Ormsby he has contributed very greatly to the health and comfort county, and the capital of the state, situated in o 9 10 b. J A MN of invalids. ( - - ‘ -) lat. and 119° 46' W. long., in the western part of the Carrickfergus, a maritime town and urban state, at an altitude of 4720 feet, in Eagle valley, near sanitary district, in the county of Antrim, Ireland, on the south base of Washoe mountains. It is. on the Belfast Lough and the Belfast and Northern Counties Virginia and Truckee railway. It was founded in 1858, railway, 94 miles bi.E. of Belfast. It ceased to be a par- about the time of the discovery of the Comstock Lode, liamentary borough in 1885, and in 1898 the separate and its fortunes have been closely associated with the county of the town of Carrickfergus was abolished. The mines of that great ore deposit. Population (1880), 42^9 , new harbour admits vessels of 500 tons, and is connected by (1890), 3950; (1900), 2285. rail with the Northern Counties system. Population, 8923. Cartagena, a seaport, dockyard, and arsenal on Carriere, iVBoritz (1817-1895), German the Mediterranean coast of Spain, in the province o philosopher and historian, was born at Griedel in the Murcia. Cartagena is one of . the three great naval Grand Duchy of Hesse Darmstadt on 5th March 1817. departments, the other two being San 1 ernando, near an admiral, After studying at the universities of Giessen, Gottingen, Cadiz, and Ferrol. Each department is underran (• . QOw? and Berlin, he spent a few years in Italy in the study whose title is captain - general in local of the fine arts, and established himself in 1842 in his old population of Cartagena was (1887) 84,170, and (1 )