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CARTAGENA—CARTOON 609 86,424. Not only have the land and coast defences 1,143 250 gallons of wine, valued at £65,350, in 1892. been improved, but considerable sums have been expended on the port works, quays, and wharves. These changes Population, about 7000. and the completion of the through railway lines have TT capital of Jasper county, Missouri, contributed to an increase in both local commerce and U.S A., situated in 37° IP N. lat. and 94° 18' W. long, population, as the latter was only 26,000 in 1870. The on he south bank of Spring river, in the south-western commercial importance of Cartagena was diminished at part of the state, at an altitude of 973 feet. It is entered the beginning of 1898, when Porman, or Portman, a mining hy two railways, the Missouri Pacific and the St Louis village about 11 miles to the eastward, situated on a well- and San Francisco. It is in the rich lead and zinc sheltered bay, was declared by royal order an independent region of south-west Missouri and south-east Kansas. port. Vessels go to Porman to land coke and coal, and Population (1890), 7981 ; (1900), 9416, including 273 to load iron ore and lead. This fact explains why the foreign-born and 539 negroes. number of British vessels visiting Cartagena slightly £aKt?°r'> a term now applied to the principal declined in 1899, the figures being 307 entered with political drawings in the humorous or satirical papers of 298,314 tons, and 310 cleared with 301,610 tons. The the day At an earlier period satirical prints were styled number of ships of other nationalities in the same year caricatures, and were issued separately; Gillray, Rowwere 152 entered with 109,412 tons, and 153 cleared with landson, the three Cruikshanks, Heath, and others were 111,200 tons. The Spanish vessels trading direct over popular favourites in this class of design. Even the sea, cleared and entered, were 79 steamers of 100,303 insignificant little cuts by Robert Seymour in Figaro tons in all, and 5 sailing vessels of 1398 tons. The export m London, the diableries in The Fly, and the vulgar trade owes its importance chiefly to the ores from the and rancorous political skits in the flood of scurrilous surrounding districts. The exports of iron and mangan- little papers of the time, were dignified by the same iferous iron ores amounted in 1898 to 430,750 tons, those term (see Caricature, Ency. Brit., ninth ed.) The of silver lead to 56,571 tons, of soft lead to 8422 tons, long series of Political Sketches by “H. B.” (John Doyle) and of zinc to 44,546 tons, while copper ore, copper mat, were the first examples of unexaggerated statement, and and pyrites were also exported. England imported from fair and decorous satire. With the advent of Punch Caitagena in that year 8034 tons of esparto grass, while and its various rivals {The Peep-Show, The Great Gun 6863 tons of fruit, cereals, barley, and oats were sent Diogenes, and the like), the general tone was elevated! to England, France, and Belgium. The imports into Punch at first adopted the word “ pencilling ” to describe Cartagena were chiefly coal, 56,516 tons from England, the “big cut,” which dealt variously with political and and coke, 18,662 tons from England, 1657 tons from social topics. But when in 1843 there was held in Germany, and 2000 tons from North Spain. Timber Westminster Hall the great exhibition of cartoons from came from the United States and Russia, and 1501 tons which selection was to be made of designs for the decoraof cod-fish from Canada and Norway. tion in fresco of the new Houses of Parliament, Punch PI 3.j a port of Colombia, on the north jocularly professed to range himself alongside the great coast of South America, capital of the department of artists of the day; so that the “ mad designe ” of the Bolivar, situated on a low island of the Caribbean Sea, reign of Charles I. became the “ cartoon ” of that of at the entrance of Cartagena Bay. In 1898 the wharf Queen Victoria. John Leech’s drawing in No. 105 of was lengthened by 120 feet, and a wharf was also made that journal was the first caricature to be called a for the construction of steamboats. Cartagena is connected cartoon : it was entitled “ Substance and Shadow: the with the Magdalena river, both by a canal and by rail Poor ask for Bread, and the Philanthropy of the State to Calamar, 60 miles distant. It retains its pre- accords an Exhibition.” Later, Punch dropped the eminence for its educational establishments. Of the word for a while, but the public took it up. Yet the churches, that of San Juan de Dios is celebrated for its Encyclopaedic Dictionary entirely ignores the word in its altar of Italian marble. The city, which within recent application to modern satirical prints, and the monuyears has greatly increased in prosperity, is lighted by elec- mental Oxford Dictionary curiously attributes the first tricity, and possesses a service of telephones and tramways. use of it to Miss Braddon in 1863. A large market—the first in the city—was erected by the In England the cartoon, no longer a weapon of venomous municipality in 1897-98. The value of the exports now attack, has come to be regarded as a humorous or sarcastic averages about <£380,000 annually. During the civil war comment upon the weekly topic uppermost in the nation’s of 1885 the city underwent a siege. On the anniversary mind, a witty or saturnine illustration of views already of its independence, 11th November 1897, a statue of formed, rather than as an instrument for the manufacture Bolivar was unveiled, the cost being about £4000. The of public opinion. It has almost wholly lost its rancour; population is estimated at 16,000. it has totally lost its ferocity—the evolutionary result a city of Costa Rica, Central America, of peace and contentment, for satire in its more violent capital of the province of the same name, situated on and more spontaneous form is but the outcome of the the railway line from Limon, about 90 miles W.S.W. of dissatisfaction or the rage of the multitude. The cartoon, that port, and 11 miles E.S.E. of San Jose. Among the it is agreed, must be. suggestive; it must present a public buildings are a college and a hospital. At Bella clear idea lucidly and, if possible, laughably worked out; Vista, a short distance from the city, are hot mineral and however reserved or restrained it may be, or even, springs, much frequented by invalids. In 1892 the popu- when occasion demands (as in the case of Sir John lation was only 3491; but the railway to Limon has already Tenniel and some of his imitators), however epic in done much to revive the city’s prosperity, which will be intuition, it must always figure, so to say, as a leading further aided by the line from San Jose to a proposed article transformed into a picture in the solvent, more or less mordant, of graphic fun or feeling. Matt Morgan new port at the mouth of the Gulf of Nicoya. transgressed on at least one occasion, and paid the penalty Cartaxo, a town of the district of Santarem, Portugal, by loss of popularity. That the cartoon has greater situated 4 miles from the right bank of the Tagus, and influence for good or evil than is usually recognized i miles S.W. from Santarem. It produces corn’ and good wine, and fish from the Tagus. The parish yielded has more than once been proved, and international amenities have several times been disturbed when the S. II. — 77