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satirical papers have hurt the susceptibilities of foreign and Phoebe in Newport, Rhode Island, 31st July of the nations. Among examples may be quoted the “ Fashoda ” same year. cartoon in Punch, which caused considerable irritation in Casablanca. See Dar el Baida. France, and the insulting drawings by Willette and Casale Nlonferrato, a town and episcopal see Leandre in 1899-1900 in Paris, which outraged British feelino's by their bad taste, indecency, and lack of chivalry. of Piedmont, Italy, province of Alessandria, 20 miles The names of Punch's cartoonists, Sir John Tenniel, N. by W. from Alessandria by rail, and on the river Po. John Leech, Richard Doyle, Charles Keene, Linley In 1888 the river was spanned by a handsome, iron bridge. Sambourne, among others, are household words in all The town possesses a school of design, carries on the raising English-speaking countries. Artists of ability have like- of silk cocoons, and has clothing and cement factories, ironworks, and printing. Population, about 17,000. wise worked in the service of Fun, including Paul Gray, A. B. Cascina,a commune of the province of Pisa, Tuscany, Houghton, Matt Morgan, Fred Barnard, J. F. Sullivan, and ^Gordon Thomson—the last named having invented Italy, 8 miles E. by S. from Pisa on the railway to Florence. ■ and drawn the weekly cartoon from 1870 to 1892 with It is still surrounded with walls, and carries on cottononly the break of a single week. Other cartoonists^ of weaving and furniture-making. Under its walls the troops the past are Watts Phillips, William M'Connell, William of Pisa were defeated by Galeotto Malatesta and the FlorenBrunton, and Alfred Bryan, while those of the present, tines in 1364. Population, about 24,000. besides those already mentioned, are Harry Furniss, John Caserta, a town and episcopal see of Campania, Proctor, William Bowcher, A. Stafford, William Parkinson, Italy, capital of province of Caserta, 20 miles N.N.E. from G. R. Halkett, and F. C. Gould. In France, where Naples by rail. It has a cathedral, a technical institute, political passion runs high, the cartoon continues to and an agricultural school; and cotton, silk, and woollen flourish as a political engine worked with extraordinary mills, macaroni factories, and pottery works. In 1898 ability and energy. The considerable number of satirical an ancient necropolis was discovered here. Good wine is journals, supported by a population extremely alive to the made in the vicinity. Population of town (1881), 30,550 ; ridiculous and easily moved by party feeling, gives occu- (1901), 32,729 ; of province (1881), 714,131; (1901), pation to many clever caricaturists, who employ technical 783,495. methods such as lithography and colour for the reproducCasimir - P4rier, Jean Paul Pierre tion of their cartoons to an extent unknown in England. ), fifth President of the French Republic, was Prominent among them are Caran d Ache (E. Poire), (1847 Pepin (E. Gillaumin), Forain, Willette, Leandre, born in Paris on 8th November 1847., being the grandCouturier, and Hermann-Paul. In the other countries of son of the famous Premier of Louis Philippe. He Europe the cartoon does not seem to be quite so popular, entered public life as secretary to his father, who was or to have been so vigorously exploited as in France and Minister of the Interior under the presidency of M. England, although much talent is occasionally displayed; Thiers. He was elected to the Chamber in 1874, and indeed, it is not uncommon to see the picture to which, distinguished himself as an active supporter of the in Punch for example, is assigned the place of honour, Republic until 1883, when he resigned his seat upon relegated to a corner of the back page. In the United the enactment of a law disqualifying the members of States many artists of striking ability have arisen but French royal and imperial families from employment in the public service. After this demonstration, due to his only two names—those of Thomas iNast and J. Keppler may be said to have gained European celebrity. (See old family connexion with the House of Orleans, he re-entered the Chamber, and, continually increasing in Caricature and Illustration.) Authorities.—James Parton. Caricature and other Comic Art. influence and authority, was elected President of the New York, 1878.—Graham Everitt. English Caricaturists and Republic after the assassination of President Carnot in Graphic Humorists of the 19th Century. London, 1886.—M. July 1894. The highest hopes were entertained of the Sfielmann. The History of “Punch.” London, 1895.—J. Grand- government of one who rivalled his predecessor in integrity, Carteret. Les Momrs et la Caricature en France. Pans, 1885. and was thought to surpass him in firmness, and great Les Mceurs et la Caricature en Allemagne, &c. Pans, 1885. Adolph Brisson. Nos Humoristes. Paris, 1900.—And various was the disappointment when, after a stormy administration volumes by J. Grand-Carteret upon special subjects, such as the of six months, during which he had in some measure Franco-Russian alliance, the Dreyfus case, and the like. alienated the Moderate party without gaining the support (M. H. S.) of the more advanced Republicans, President CasimirCary, Alice (1820-1871), and Phoebe (1824- Perier resigned his office. The cause assigned by himself inability to withstand the insults continually directed 1871) American poets, born near Cincinnati, Ohio, respectively on 20th April 1820, and 4th September 1824. against him by opponents—was evidently insufficient, but Their education was largely self-acquired, and their work it was generally believed that the real motive was imin literature was always done in unbroken companionship. patience at finding himself a mere cipher in the hands In 1852 they removed to New York, and occupied a of his ministers. Whatever the reason, the effect was to prominent position in the literary circles of that city at deprive France of the services of one of the foremost the time when their friend Rufus Wilmot Griswold, Poe’s of her citizens, for, except for a brief appearance during the literary executor, was the ^"Mcist-dictator of American verse, Dreyfus court-martial of 1899, which led to the circulation and when Horace Greeley, editor of the Tribune, who of many singular rumours, M. Casimir-Perier ceased to also aided them, was making that journal the organ of the take any part in public affairs. reformers in politics and the sentimentalists in letters. Caspian Sea (the ancient Mare Caspium or The prose of Alice, who was the more voluminous writer Hyrcanium; Russian, Kaspiyskoye More, formerly lived of the two, consisted of sketches and novels, now entirely ynskoye More; Persian, Daria-i-Khyzyr, or Gurzem; forgotten • of her verse the best volume is the progressive collection'of lyrics entitled The Lover's Diary (1867). Tatar, Ak-Denghiz ; Sikim, also Jurjan of the old Eastern geographers), an inland sea between Europe and sia, Phoebe whose writings were first collected in a volume situated between 36° 40' to 47° 20' N. and 46 50 0 entitled Poems by Alice and Phoebe Cary (1850), is now 55° 10' E. It has an area of 169,380 square miles. Its best known by the hymn beginning “One sweetly solemn surface is 86 feet below the level of the ocean (96 ee , thought ” Alice died in New York, 12th February 1871,