C E A R iC — CELEBES Society. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in U.S.A., on the Red Cedar river. Population (1890), 3459 ; 1852, and received from that body a Royal Medal in (1900), 5319, of whom 863 were foreign-born. 1859 and the Copley Medal in 1882. He also received Cedar Rapids, a city of Linn county, Iowa, the De Morgan Medal from the London Mathematical U.S.A., situated in 41° 58' N. lat. and 91° 31' W. long., Society, and the Huyghens Medal from Leyden. His on Cedar river, in the eastern part of the state, at an nature was noble and generous, and the universal apprecia- altitude of 732 feet. It is the headquarters of the tion of this fact gave him great influence in his university. Burlington, Cedar Rapids, and Northern railway, with its His portrait, by Lowes Dickinson, was placed in the hall works, and is entered also by the Illinois Central, of Trinity College in 1874, and his bust, by Henry Wiles, the Chicago and North-Western, and the Chicago, Milin the library of the same college in 1888. (p. A. M.) waukee, and St Paul railways, which make it an important transportation centre. The city has a fine waterCeard, an Atlantic state of Brazil, situated between power in Cedar river, and its manufactures are extensive 2° 45' and 7° 11' S. lat., and 36° 45' and 41° 15' W. long. and varied. Coe College, a Presbyterian institution, was Its area is 40,253 square miles. The population in 1872 founded in 1881. In 1898 it had a faculty numbering was 721,086, and in 1890 was 805,687. The capital, ten, and was attended by 106 students, more than half of Fortaleza, has 48,000 inhabitants. Amongst the other whom were women. Population (1880), 10,104 ; (1890), towns are Aracaty (18,000 inhabitants), Barbalha, Cas- 18,020; (1900), 25,656, of whom 4478 were foreign-born cavel, Crato, Granja, Ic6, Igatu, Quixeramobim, Sant’ and 230 were negroes. Anna, Quixada, and San Bernardo das Russas. There Cefalu, a seaport town and bishop’s see of Sicily, are railways from the port of Camocim to Sobral (80 miles), and from Fortaleza to Quixeramobim - Quixadd Italy, in the province of Palermo, on a promontory on the N. coast, 42 miles by rail E. by S. of Palermo on the (117 miles). line to Messina. A bronze statue was erected here in Cebu, capital of the island of Cebu, Philippine 1894 to the Sicilian patriot Niccolo Botta. The people Islands, beautifully situated on its eastern coast, a little carry on sardine-fishing, and there is some trade. Populanorth of the centre. Its port, formed by the islands of tion, about 16,000. Mactan and Opon, is well protected from violent winds. Ceglie, a town of the province of Lecce, Apulia, The streets are wide and regularly laid out. The Govern- Italy, 23 miles W. from Brindisi. It produces olive oil, ment buildings are fair, and the church buildings very lime, and building stone. Population, about 14,000. fine. It is an episcopal see, and the palace of the bishop, Cehegin, a town of Spain, in the province of although small, is noted for its interior decorations. The Murcia, with a population in 1897 of 11,365. It is Augustinian church is famous for its so-called miraculous situated on the right bank of the river Quipar. On image of Santo Nino. The Recoleto monastery and the the height styled Cabecico de Roenas stood the Roman seminary of San Carlos are worthy of mention. The town of Begastri, from the ruins of which the inhabitants cathedral was finished towards the end of the 18th century. for centuries obtained the stone for their principal church, There is a leper hospital in the outskirts of the town. : the house of Yanez Espin, and the convent of San FranHistorically, Cebu is famous as the scene of Magellan’s on whose walls can be seen the Roman inscriplanding in 1521. A cross, said to be the identical one cisco, tions and designs. Spanish antiquaries believe the name first erected by him, is still preserved in the cathedral. Cehegin came from the Berber invaders of the 10th The great explorer lost his life in the neighbouring island century, Zinhagies or Sinhachie. of Mactan. The first Spanish settlement in the PhilipCel sense, in ancient geography an important city pines was established at Cebu in 1565, and from that year to 1571 it was the capital of the colony. Com- of Phrygia, situated on the great trade route to the East. mercially, it is the third city of the Philippines. Its Its acropolis was considered by Alexander to be impregtrade amounts to some $3,000,000 (gold) annually. Hemp nable. Beneath it were the palace of Xerxes and the and sugar are the most important exports. Salt, pot- Agora, in or near which was the cavern whence the tery, and fabrics of silk, sinamay, hemp, and cotton are Marsyas, one of the sources of the Mseander, issued. manufactured, and sugar sacks are woven in considerable According to Xenophon, Cyrus had a palace and large quantity. In addition to the trade with foreign ports, an park full of wild animals at Celsense. The town was important domestic commerce is carried on with Manila, deserted when Apamea was founded. Bohol, Negros, and northern Mindanao. The language is Celebes, one of the four great Sunda Isles in the Cebu-Yisayan. Population, 24,000. Dutch East Indies. Area, including the neighbouring Cedar Creek, a small branch of the North Fork of islands (Sangir, Talaut, Saleyer, Buton, &c.), 77,865 square Shenandoah river, in a valley of Yirginia, U.S.A. It is miles. The eastern part of the northern peninsula, Minaknown in American history as the scene of a memorable hassa, consisting of volcanic rock with conglomerates and battle, which took place on 9th October 1864, between the tufas, is separated by the Mongondo chain from the Union army under Sheridan and the Confederates under granitic diorite and gneiss of the western part (Boni chain), and the old eruptive rocks and slate of the MatinEarly. The Confederates attacked at daybreak, effecting ang and Oleida chains between Bwool and the Gulf of a surprise, and driving back the Union forces in con- Tomini. The same (crystalline) slate occurs in Central fusion. Sheridan was at this time on his way back to Celebes, near Lake Posso, but, except in Minahassa, no his army from an absence in Washington, and reached the volcanoes are found. The older sedimentary and erupfield in the midst of the rout. By his presence he stopped tive rocks are surrounded by Tertiary and Quaternary the retreat, the advancing Confederates were checked, and alluvium, clay, and coralline limestone, but Mesozoic then, taking the offensive, the Union troops drove the formations are wanting. The south-western peninsula Confederates from the field, gaining a complete victory. has a volcano, the Peak of Bonthain. P. and F. Sarasin The losses on both sides were heavy. Those on the are of the opinion that the northern and southern Federal side were 6000 in killed and wounded, and the peninsulas originally formed separate islands which were Confederates admitted a loss of 3100. united to Central Celebes about the end of the Mesozoic Cedar Falls, a city of Blackhawk county, Iowa, period. The variations in surface relief are in conformity 626
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