CELEBES 627 with the geological structure. Minahassa consists of a plateau divided into smaller sections by volcanoes (highest Klabat, 6620 feet). In the west of the northern peninsula the interior consists in part of plateaux of considerable extent enclosed by the coast ranges. Near Lake Posso the mountains are higher; the Tampiko massif has a height of nearly 5000 feet, the chains south and west of the lake have a general altitude of about 5450 feet, with peaks still loftier. In the southern peninsula two chains I he density of population being calculated at about 2 7 stretch parallel with the west and east coasts; the former is t° ^ per square mile for Celebes, is 16 "2 for Minahassa, the higher, with a general altitude of 3200 feet. In the but only L5 to 2 for the Residency of Menado. Centres south it joins the Peak of Bonthain, a volcanic mass as of population in Menado are Amurang (3000), the seat of colossal as Etna, 10,088 feet high. An alluvial coast a controller, and a calling place for the steamers of the plain, 7 to 9 miles wide, stretches along the foot of Indian Packet Company; Menado (10,000), the chief the western chain, and between the two chains is the town of the residency, the principal station of the Dutch basin of the Walannae, flowing northwards into Lake missionaries, with a fair amount of trade (200,000 tons), Sidenreng. The orography of the eastern peninsula is but an unsafe roadstead; Tondano (12,000; 10,000 Christians), near the lake and river of the same name, still unexplored. The rivers of the narrow mountainous peninsulas form many at an altitude of nearly 2000 feet, and one of the chief rapids and cataracts ; as the Tondino, draining the lake of the centres; Gorontalo, one of the most important towns of same name to Menado ; the Rano i Apo, flowing over the plateau Celebes, carrying on direct trade with Singapore and of Mongondo to the Gulf of Amurang ; the Poigar, issuing from a Europe. All the other coast places have £ome importance still unknown lake of that plateau ; the Lombagin, traversing narrow canons ; and the river of Boni, which has its outfall in the as chief villages of the little states and as ports of call plain of Gorontalo, near the mouth of the Bolango or Tapa, the for the vessels of the steam packet company, but have latter connected by a canal with the Lake of Limbotto. All these only from 500 to 1000 inhabitants. rivers are navigable by praus or rafts for only a few miles above The Government of Celebes and Dependencies is subthe mouth. In Central Celebes, the Kodina flows into Lake Posso, and the Kalaena discharges to the Gulf of Boni; the Posso, navig- divided into the government territory, the vassal states able by Mottos (canoes formed of hollowed tree-trunks), is the only (Boni and Ternate), and the federal countries. The river flowing from the lake to the Gulf of Tomini. The rivers of following figures show the number and composition of the southern peninsula, owing to the relief of the surface, are the population navigable to a somewhat greater extent. The Walannae flows into Lake Tempe, and, continued by the Jenrana (Tienrana), which discharges into the Gulf of Boni, is navigable for little boats ; the Sadang, with many affluents, flows to "the west coast, and is ojS-i -4_3 i. O5 navigable by sampans. The Jenemaja (Djenemadja) is a broad OOfcH river, navigable far from the mouth (Weber and Wichmann). The coasts of Celebes consist of alluvium and of Tertiary strata Government of (except where older rocks reach the coast) ; they are often fertile and well populated; but, as shown by the marine charts, many Celebes and sand, mud, and stone banks lie near the shore, and consequently Dependencies 1414 3738 554, 54 1,442,962 1,448,722 there are few accessible or natural ports or good roadsteads. The climate of the island, everywhere accessible to the influence of the sea, is maritime-tropical, the temperature ranging generally The density of- population for the whole government is between 77° and 80° F., the extremes being about 90° and 70° F., estimated at 3 7, or 4 per square mile, varying from 2'2 only on the higher mountains falling during the night to 54° or in the vassal and federated states to li'7 to 18'4 for 55° F. The rainfall in the northern peninsula (north of the equator) ditters from that of the southern ; the former has rains Macassar and the districts directly governed by the Dutch. (not caused by the monsoon), and of smaller amount, 102 The density of population in districts outside the influence inches annually; the latter has a greater rainfall, 157 inches, of European government sinks to 1 and less per square brought by the north-western monsoon, and of which the west mile. As in the case of Minahassa,, the difference must coast receives a much larger share than the east. In natural vege- be explained by physical and moral conditions. Twotation and fauna, as well as in cultivated products, Celebes presents the transitional link between the Asiatic and the Australian regions thirds of the natives live by agriculture, and one-third of the Malayan province. For example, rice is produced here in by trade, navigation, shipbuilding, and other industries. smaller quantity and of inferior quality to that in the western part The difference in occupation, as compared with Menado, of the archipelago, but superior to that in the eastern section, where is shown in the following table :— sago and miloe form the staple articles of food. The products of the forests, which differ in like manner, amount to from £80,000 to over £160,000 annually, supplying about half the total exports. Coffee in Minahassa yielded 9000 piculs in 1897. The fisheries include trepang, turtle, and pearl oysters. Gold is worked under European direction in the district of Gorontalo, but with only partial success ; the search for coal in the southern peninsula has yielded no satisfactory results ; tin, iron, and copper, found in the eastern peninsula and elsewhere, are utilized only for native industries. Celebes is divided, for administrative purposes, into the Residency of Menado and the Government of Celebes with In agreement with the three principal occupations, the dependencies. The eastern peninsulas belong politically centres of population are found in southern Celebes, on to the Residency of Ternate. the coast (not in the interior plains or on the lake, as in The Residency of Menado comprises three districts : Menado). Palos (3000), with good port; Pare-Pare, conMinahassa, the little states along the north coast west nected by road with Lake Tempe; and Macassar, the seat of Minahassa, and Gorontalo, including the other of the governor and the centre of trade for the eastern states of the northern peninsula lying along the Gulf part of the archipelago. Declared a free port in 1832, the of Tomini. Total area, 22,147 square miles. The value of the trade of Macassar increased from £125,000 in following table shows the distribution and composition of that year to £1,250,000 in 1895. Of the 17,925 inhabitthe population :— ants, Europeans numbered 940, Chinese 2618, and Arabs
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