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CETYWAY O — CEYLON deeply sunk in the heart of the limestone mountains, at a height of 2470 feet above the sea. It consists of some streets and a large market-place of little, clean houses, and has much more the appearance of a village than of a town. The principal buildings are the monastery, the old palace (Bigliardo), the palaces of the prince and of the prince-royal, the hotel, the hospital, the reading-hall (Citaonica), the women’s institute, and the new military barracks. The old palace, a great quadrangular building, contains the ministries, the gymnasium, and the tribunal. The population of the whole hollow, including Cetinje, Bajoe, Martinitche, Hum, and Donji Kraj, is about 1500. Cetywayo, king of Zululand, was the son of King Umpanda. As early as 1856 he showed aspirations to the throne, which soon led to open war, and by victories over his father and brothers he virtually became king. By a compromise King Umpanda was made the “head ” or adviser, with Cetywayo as the “feet” or administrator of the nation. The old king died in 1873, and Cetywayo was duly crowned in the presence of Mr (afterwards Sir) Theophilus Shepstone. The military power exercised by Cetywayo was, however, regarded by Sir Bartle Frere as a menace to Natal and the Transvaal, so he despatched an ultimatum to Cetywayo in December 1878, directing him to disband his formidable army, indemnify British subjects for outrages, and admit a British Resident. No reply being vouchsafed, Lord Chelmsford, at the head of 13,000 troops, entered Zululand on 11th January 1879. The disaster of Isandlana and the defence of Rorke’s Drift signalized the commencement of the campaign, but on 4th July Cetywayo was utterly routed by Lord Chelmsford, and was captured by Major Marter on 28th August. Zululand was placed under a British Resident, and Cetywayo was taken to Cape Town, and afterwards to England, where he arrived 3rd August 1882. He remained in London until the following September, when the Government announced that they had decided upon his restoration, and sent him back to Africa. To his great disappointment, however, this proved to refer only to a portion of his old domains, the country north of the Umhlatusi river. Even here one of his chief enemies, Usibepu, was allowed to retain some territory allotted to him by Sir Garnet (afterwards Lord) Wolseley. Cety wayo’s enemies, headed by Usibepu, soon attacked him, and after a struggle of nearly a year’s duration he was defeated and his kraal destroyed. He then took refuge in the Native Reserve, where he died 8th February 1884. Cetywayo was a typical Zulu, brave and proud, but sunk in superstition and reckless of human life and human suffering. (g. f. b.) Ceuta, a Spanish station and seaport on the north coast of Morocco, nearly opposite Gibraltar, in 35° 54' N. lat., 5° 18' W. long. It is situated on a sort of promontory connected with the African mainland by a narrow isthmus. The population has steadily grown in the last forty years, outside the penal settlement and the garrison, which have also been increased. In 1897 there were 12,868 inhabitants, as compared with 10,600 in 1887. The garrison averages 3500 men, and the number of convicts ranges from 2000 to 2500. The garrison is under the command of a general of division, resident in the citadel of El Hacho, with military commandants in charge of the principal defences, exterior lines, forts Isabel II. and Prince Alphonso, and other outworks. The local militia is composed of a squadron of mounted rifles of Africa, a marine company, and sharpshooters of the Riff. There is also in Ceuta one of the three African infantry regiments, and the disciplinary

corps of military convicts styled “ Fijo de Ceuta.” The Spanish forces in the other stations at Melilla, Islas Chaffarinas, Penon de la Gomera, Alhucemas on the north coast of Morocco, are under the orders of the commanderin-chief of Ceuta. In the ’nineties the governments of the Regency of Queen Christina were forced by public opinion to increase the garrison, fortifications, land and sea defences of Melilla. Little has been done, however, to improve the shallow harbour, much exposed to winds and gales that have often damaged its very imperfect moles and quays. The bay is commanded by the Mountain of the Marabout, a Moorish sepulchre better known as the Tomb of the Renegadi. Ceuta has only lately been better fortified seawards, and guns have been mounted in works that are intended to be troublesome for the highway of the seas into the Mediterranean. On the land side Ceuta is defended by three lines of fortifications, the first including only the antiquated citadel of El Hacho, between which and the third line stands the town proper, on the site of the ancient Sebta of the Arabs. On the north and west fronts of the peninsula the modern Ceuta rises in some sort in an amphitheatre. Beyond the third line of the fortification lies the neutral ground. The town has no striking public buildings : a modest cathedral of the 15th century, the town hall, barracks, a statue of Charles IV., and the convict prison in the old convent of San Francisco. Ceuta forms one of the judicial districts of the province of Cadiz, and is under the naval jurisdiction of Algeciras. Ceylon, a large island and British colony, lying E. of the extreme southern point of India, with a greatest length from north to south of 2714 miles, a greatest breadth of 1374 miles, and an area of 25,363 miles, or somewhat less than four-fifths that of Ireland. Topographical, trigonometrical, cadastral, and archaeological surveys have been placed upon a sound basis, but no geological survey, of which there is great need, has yet been definitely commenced. Meteorology.—Notice should be directed to the wonderful immunity of Ceylon from cyclones, earthquakes, or other volcanic disturbances, and from destructive hurricanes. The latest tables of rainfall and temperature are as follows :— Barometer (reduc.to32°F.) Q.9 -g-g H £ Name of Station. C3 o c

Colombo Ratnapura . Puttalam . Anuradhapura Mannar Jaffna . Trincomalee Batticaloa . Hambantota Galle . Kandy Hakgalla Badulla Vavuniya Kurunegala Nuwara Bliya

Feet. 40 84 ‘27 295 12 9 12 26 50 48 1654 5581 2225 317 381 6188

88-31 150-13 46-08 5438-24 43-98 62-74 5536-17 91-33 81-55 91-12 79-51 59-48 84-30 94-14

30-072 30-003 30-106 293030-157 30-062 30-108 30-034 30-081 2824-725 27-905 2904-228

29-607 29-314 29-535 29-264 29-588 29-552 29-402 29-565 29-583 29-621 27-975 24-205 27-396 29-271 23-800

8079-1 79808181-7 81-2 80-4 79-7 7975-3 60-8 73 0 8079-6 57-9

Miles. 19831-0 208-0 54-8 214-7 216-0 241-7 120-7 19915049-5 15147-3 78-7 29-6 81-8

Sr

173 207 77 104 61 74 112 102 85 206 193 203 111 100 172 202

11-90 11129-32 11-00 9-£2 8-21 10-46 5 06 787-40 9569-11

The above figures give the results of twenty-eight years’ unbroken observations. Flora and Fauna.—A great change has been effected in the appearance of the country by the introduction of the tea plant in place of the coffee plant, after the total failure of the latter owing to disease. Unlike the coffee plant, the hardy tea plant grows from sea-level to 7000 feet altitude ; hut Crown forest-lands above 5000 feet are no longer sold, so that a very large area on the highest mountain ranges and plateaux is still under forest. Moreover, on the tea plantations arboriculture is attended to in a way unknown in 1875 ; the Australian eucalypts, acacias, and grevilleas, Indian and Japanese conifers, and other trees of different lands, are now freely planted for ornament, protection