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CEPHALONIA—OETTIGNE

Cervera, Pascual Cervera y Topete destroyed by the Emperor Frederick II. as a punishment (1839 )? Spanish admiral, was born at Medina Sidonia for having revolted, and its inhabitants were removed to on 18th February 1839. He showed an early inclination for Augusta. Numerous antique vases, coins, &c., have been the sea, and his family sent him to the Naval Cadet School found in the vicinity. Population, about 10,000. at the age of twelve. As a sub-lieutenant he took part in Cephalonia. See Greece [Ionian Islands). the naval operations on the coast of Morocco during the 1 Qei-amj or Si rang , an island of the Dutch East campaign of 1859-60. Then he was for some time Indies, north of Amboyna. Area, 6612 square miles. Pro- engaged in operations in the Sulu Islands and the Philipfessor Martin has demonstrated the similarity of its geo- pines. Afterwards he was on the West Indian station logical structure—consisting chiefly of eruptive rocks and during the early part of the first Cuban war (1869-78), crystalline limestone—to that of northern Amboyna. The returning to Spain in 1873 to serve on the Basque coast isthmus connecting the two parts of the island is very against the Carlists. He distinguished himself in defendnarrow, and has a height of only 460 to 490 feet. In the ing the Carraca arsenal near Cadiz against the Federals eastern section the prevailing rock is crystalline chalk, in 1873. He won each step in his promotion up to similar to that of Buru. No central chain of mountains flag-rank through his steadiness and brilliant conduct in stretches west and east through the island, but near the action, and was awarded the crosses of the Orders of north coast mountains, rising 2300 to 2600 feet, slope Military and Naval Merit, Isabella the Catholic, and St steeply to the shore. Near the south coast, west of the Bay Hermengilde, besides several medals. Cervera had a of Elpaputi, a complex mass of mountains forms a colossal great reputation for decision, unbending temper and pyramid, with peaks rising to nearly 5000 feet. . The honesty, before he was placed at the head of the Bilbao rivers flow north and south into bays, but are navigable building-yards. This post he resigned after a . few only for a few miles during the rainy season. On the north months in order to become Minister of Marine in 1892, in coast the bays of Savai and Warn are accessible for small a Cabinet presided over by Sagasta. . He withdrew from vessels. Besides other products, tobacco is cultivated for the Cabinet when he found that his colleagues, from the European market. The island, which belongs to the political motives, declined to support him in making Residency of Amboyna, is divided into Kairatu or West reforms and, on the other hand, unwisely cut down the Ceram, Wahai and Amahei, the northern and the southern naval estimates. When the war broke out with the parts of Middle Ceram, and Warn or Eastern Ceram United States, Cervera was selected to command a Recent estimates give only 100,000 for the population (of squadron composed of four first-class cruisers, the Mai ia whom 12,000 are Christians and 16,000 Mahommedans). Theresa, his flagship, Oquendo, Vizcaya, and Columbus, About 4000 persons perished in the earthquake of 1899. and several destroyers. This ill-fated squadron only Ceramics. See Pottery. started upon its reckless cruise across the ocean after Cernuschi, Henri (1821-1900), Italian poli- its gallant commander had repeatedly warned both the tician and economist, was born of wealthy parents, at Minister of Marine and the Prime Minister, Sagasta, in Milan in 1821, and was destined for the legal profession. despatches from Cadiz and from the Canary and Cape Verde During his studies he became involved in the revolu- Islands, that the ships were insufficiently provided with tionary movement. He played a conspicuous part in the coal and ammunition. Some of them, indeed, even lacked insurrection at Milan in 1848, and also at Rome in 1849, proper guns. In compliance with the instructions of the where he had a seat in the National Assembly. On the Government, Admiral Cervera made for the landlocked collapse of the Revolutionary Government he was arrested harbour of Santiago de Cuba, where he co-operated in (1850), but managed to escape to France, where he the defence, landing some guns and a naval brigade. In engaged in commerce and banking, became naturalized, spite of his energetic representations, Cervera received an and acquired a large fortune. He took a prominent part order from Madrid, dictated by political considerations, The in opposing the Socialist movement, and in April 1870, to sally forth. It meant certain destruction. having subscribed a large sum to the funds of a committee gallant squadron met forces trebly superior to it, and was formed to combat the Napoleonic plebiscite, had to leave totally destroyed. The admiral, three of his captains, and the country. In September the formation of the Third 1800 sailors and marines were taken by the victors Republic enabled him to return, but he soon left Paris to to Portsmouth, in the United States. After the war, travel in the East, whence he returned with a fine art Cervera and his captains were tried before the supreme collection, particularly of Japanese objects. . Cernuschi is naval and military court of the realm, which honourably best known for his publications on financial questions, acquitted them all. more especially bimetallism. Of the latter he was an a seaport of France, in the arrondissement of ardent champion, and the word itself is commonly Montpellier, department of Herault, 17 miles S.W. of that supposed to have originated with him—at least in its town, on the railway from Bordeaux to Montpellier. The English form it is first found in his Silver Vindicated total value of imports (general commerce) in 1899 was (1876). Among his other works may be mentioned: £5,192,000, and of the exports £1,372,000. In 1899 the Mecanique de Vechange (1861); Illusion des societes number of vessels entered was 1135, tonnage 615,006 cooperatives (1866); Le Bimetallisme en Angletene (of which 54 of 41,762 tons were from England); (1879) ; Le grand proces de VUnion latine (1884.) He and cleared 1090, tonnage 556,059. Trade is chiefly J MF died in *1900. ( - ‘ -) carried on with Spain (about half the total). The foreCerro de Pasco, or Pasco, a town of Peru, going figures do not include the coasting trade, in conin the department of Junin, with a population estimated nexion with which 757 vessels of 379,187 tons entered at about 15,000, wholly devoted to mining. The average and 752 of 381,664 tons cleared. The harbour comannual output of the silver mines has since their opening prises three basins and a comprehensive system of canals, been about 1,600,000 ounces of pure silver. It is esti- the total area of which is 111 acres, and the total length mated that the copper deposits contain 15 million tons of of quayage 9656 yards. Further improvements are m ore or about 3 million tons of metallic copper. They will progress. Population (1881), 32,665; (1901), 33,065. probably be worked as soon as the railway from Oroya Cettigne (Cetinje), the capital of the principality can be built, which will put the mines in direct communicaof Montenegro, situated in a hollow plain (Polje) tion with Callao.