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the eagle crest of Lagas adorns the globular part. The some scholars have seen that of the Hebrew deity ahveh. vase is a proof of the high degree of excellence to which The Babylonian god Ea, however, is more likely to be the goldsmith’s art had already attained. A vase of calcite, meant. The fall of Sargon’s empire seems to have been as sudden as its rise. The seat of supreme power in Babyalso dedicated by Entemena, has been found at Nippur. While the Sumerian princes of Lagas were fighting and lonia was shifted southwards to Erech, Isin, and Ur. At building, the Semitic element in Northern Babylonia was least three dynasties appear to have reigned at Ur and growing in numbers and strength. Manistusu, king of claimed suzerainty over the other Babylonian ^he ^ Kis,” a long inscription of whom has been discovered by states. One of these, under Gungunu, succeeded of Vr de Morgan on a monument in the ruins of Susa, probably in transferring the capital of Babylonia from belonged to the Semitic race. He was a contemporary Isin to Ur. It is still uncertain whether Gungunu beof Uru-duggina, the vassal king of Lagas, in whom M. longed to the second or third dynasty of Ur 5 if to the Heuzey sees one of the successors of Entemena, though second, among his successors would have been Ur-Gur, a Hilprecht would refer him to a much earlier period. great builder, who built or restored the temples of the Another Semitic ruler of Kis of the same period was Moon-god at Ur, of the Sun-god at Larsa, of Istar at Erech, Alusarsid (or Uru-mus), who “subdued Elam and and of Bel at Nippur. His son and successor was Dungi I., Barahse.” But the fame of these early establishers of one of whose vassals was Gudea, the pated or highSemitic supremacy was eclipsed by that of priest of Lagas (Tello). Gudea was also a great builder, and the materials for his buildings and statues were S f Akk°d ° Sargon of Akkad and his son Naram-Sin, the brought from all parts of Western Asia, cedar wood from founders of an empire which extended from Elam to the Mediterranean and the Sinaitic peninsula. the Amanus mountains, quarried stones from Lebanon, The date of Sargon is placed by Nabonidos at 3800 b.c. He copper from Northern Arabia, gold and precious stones was the son of Itti-Bel, and a legend related how he had from the desert between Palestine and Egypt, dolerite from been born in concealment and set adrift in an ark of Magan (the Sinaitic peninsula), and timber from Dilmun bulrushes on the waters of the Euphrates. Here he had in the Persian Gulf. Some of his statues, now in the been rescued and brought up by “ Akki the husbandman ; Louvre, are carved out of Sinaitic dolerite, and on the lap but the day arrived at length when his true origin became of one of them (statue E) is the plan of his palace, with the known, the crown of Babylonia was set upon his head, and scale of measurement attached. Six of the statues bore he entered upon a career of foreign conquest. Four times special names, and offerings were made to them as to the he invaded Syria and Palestine, and spent three years in statues of the gods. Gudea claims to have conquered thoroughly subduing the countries of “ the west,” and in Ansan in Elam, and was succeeded by his son Ur-Ningirsu. uniting them with Babylonia “into a single empire. His date may be provisionally fixed at 2700 B.c. Images of himself were erected on the shores of the T The high-priests of Lagas still owned allegiance to Ur, Mediterranean in token of his victories, and cities and w hen the last dynasty of Ur was dominant in Babylonia. palaces were built at home out of the spoils of the con- The dynasty was Semitic, not Sumerian, though one of its quered lands. Elam and the northern part of Mesopotamia kings was Dungi II. He was followed by Bur-Sin II., and Ine-Sin, whose power extended to the were also subjugated, and rebellions were put down both in Gimil-Sin, Mediterranean, and of whose reigns we possess a large Kazalla and in Babylonia itself. Contract tablets have been found dated in the years of the campaigns against Palestine number of contemporaneous monuments in the shape of and similar business documents, as well as and Sarlak, king of Gutium or Kurdistan, and copper is contracts chronological tables. After the fall of the dynasty, mentioned as being brought from Magan or the Sinaitic Babylonia passed under foreign influence. Sumu- Accession peninsula. . Sargon’s son and successor, Naram-Sin, followed up the abi (“Shem is my father ”), from Southern of a South successes of his father by marching into Magan, whose Arabia (or perhaps Canaan), made himself master Arabian king he took captive. He assumed the imperial title of of Northern Babylonia, while Elamite invaders ^ ? “ king of the four zones,” and, like his father, was addressed occupied the south. After a reign of fourteen years Sumuas a “god.” He is even called “the god of Agade” abi was succeeded by his son Sumu-la-ilu, in the fifth year (Akkad), reminding us of the divine honours claimed by of whose reign the fortress of Babylon was built, and the the Pharaohs of Egypt, whose territory now adjoined that city became for the first time a capital. Rival kings, Pungun-ila and Immerum, are mentioned in the contract of Babylonia. A finely-executed bas-relief, representing Naram-Sin, and bearing a striking resemblance to early tablets as reigning at the same time as Sumu-la-ilu (or Egyptian art in many of its features, has been found at Samu-la-ilu) ; and under Sin-muballidh, the great-grandson Diarbekir. Babylonian art, however, had already attained of Sumu-la-ilu, the Elamites laid the whole of the country a high degree of excellence ; two seal cylinders of the time under tribute, and made Eri-Aku or Arioch, called Rimof Sargon are among the most beautiful specimens of the Sin by his Semitic subjects, king of Larsa. Eri-Aku was gem-cutter’s art ever discovered. The empire was bound the son of Kudar-Mabug, who was prince of Yamudbal, on together by roads, along which there was a regular postal the eastern border of Babylonia, and also “ governor of service, and clay seals, which took the place of stamps, are Syria.” The Elamite supremacy was at last shaken off by now in the Louvre bearing the names of Sargon and his the son and successor of Sin-muballidh, Khammurabi, name is also written Ammurapi and KhammUm son. A cadastral survey seems have been insti- whose Khammuram, and who was the Amraphel 01 or tuted, and one of the docum'ents relating to it states that Gen. xiv. 1. The Elamites, under their king Amraphei. a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Kudur-Lagamar or Chedor-laomer, seem to have Canaanitish origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, as Syria and Palestine were called by the taken Babylon and destroyed the temple of Bel-Merodach ; Babylonians. It is probable that the first collection of but Khammurabi retrieved his fortunes, and in the thirtieth astronomical observations and terrestrial omens was made year of his reign (in 2340 B.c.) he overthrew the Elamite forces in a decisive battle and drove them out of Babyfor a library established by Sargon. Bingani-sar-ali was the son of Naram-Sin, but we do lonia. The next two years were occupied in adding Larsa Yamudbal to his dominion, and in forming Babynot yet know whether he followed his father on the throne. and lonia into a single monarchy, the head of which was Another son was high-priest of the city of Tutu, and m the Babylon. A great literary revival followed the recovery name of his daughter, Lipus-Eaum, a priestess of Sin,