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■of Babylonian independence, and the rule of Babylon was dynasty was placed on the Babylonian throne; and Tiglathobeyed as far as the shores of the Mediterranean. Vast Ninip was shortly afterwards murdered by his son, Assurnumbers of contract tablets, dated in the reigns of nazir-pal I. Assyria steadily increased in power, while Khammurabi and other kings of the dynasty, have been Babylonia fell more and more into decay. Shalmaneser I., discovered, as well as autograph letters of the kings them- the builder of Calah (now Himroud) in 1300 B.c., carried selves, more especially of Khammurabi. Among the latter his victorious arms in all directions, and Tiglath-pileser I. is one ordering the despatch of 240 soldiers from Assyria and extended the Assyrian empire as far as the Mediterranean ►Situllum, a proof that Assyria was at the time a Baylonian (1100 b.c.). The Kassite dynasty had fallen about dependency. Constant intercourse was kept up between 1230 b.c., in consequence of an attack on the part of the Babylonia and the west, Babylonian officials and troops Elamites, and a new dynasty which sprang from Isin took passing to Syria and Canaan, while “ Amorite ” colonists its place, and lasted for 132 4 years. Then came a series of were established in Babylonia for the purposes of short-lived dynasties, ending with that of Nebo-nazir, the trade. One of these Amorites, Abi-ramu or Abram by Xabonassar of classical writers, who ascended the throne name, is the father of a witness to a deed dated in the of Babylon in 747 b.c. Assyria was at the time in the reign of Khammurabi’s grandfather. Ammi-ditana, the throes of a revolution. Civil war and pestilence were great-grandson of Khammurabi, still entitles himself devastating the kingdom, and its northern provinces had “ king of the land of the Amorites,” and both his father been wrested from it by Ararat (or Van). In 746 B.c. Calah and son bear the Canaanitish (and South Arabian) names rebelled, and on the 13th of lyyar (April), in the following of Abesukh or Abishua, and Ammi-zadok. year, Pulu or Pul, who took the name of Tiglath-pileser III., Samsu-ditana, the son of Ammi-zadok, was the last seized the throne, and inaugurated a new and vigorous king of the first dynasty of Babylon, which was followed policy. by a dynasty of eleven Sumerian kings for 368 years. We Under him and his successors arose the second Assyrian know but little of them; their capital has not yet been empire, which finally included the whole civilized world of discovered, and no trading documents dated in their reigns the day. In 729 B.c. Babylonia was conquered, have been found. They were overthrown and Babylonia and the Assyrian king, under his original name The second was conquered by Kassites or Kossseans from of Pulu, was invested with the sovereignty of emV™” P

dynasty*1 ^ t^le mountains °f Elam, under Kandis or Gaddas Asia in the holy city of Babylon. Two years (in 1800 b.c.), who established a dynasty which later, in Tebet (or December) 727 B.c., he died, but his lasted for 576 years and nine months. Under this foreign successor Ulula, who took the name of Shalmaneser IV., domination, Babylonia lost its empire over Western Asia. continued the policy he had begun. Shalmaneser died Syria and Palestine became independent, and the high- suddenly in Tebet 722 B.c., and the seizure of the throne priests of Assur made themselves kings of Assyria. The by Sargon on the 12 th of the month gave the Babydivine attributes with which the Semitic kings of Baby- lonians an opportunity to revolt. In Nisan (or March) lonia had been invested disappeared at the same time; the the Kalda prince, Merodach-baladan, entered Babylon, and title of “god” is never given to a Kassite sovereign. was there crowned legitimate king. For twelve years he Babylon, however, remained the capital of the kingdom successfully resisted the Assyrians; but the failure of his and the holy city of Western Asia. Like the sovereigns allies in the West to act in concert with him, and the overof the Holy Roman Empire, it was necessary for the prince, throw of the Elamites, eventually compelled him to fly to who claimed rule in Western Asia, to go to Babylon and his ancestral domains in the marshes of Southern Babythere be acknowledged as the adopted son of Bel before lonia. Even here his enemies pursued him, and along his claim to legitimacy could be admitted. Babylon with his followers he sought refuge in Elam. Sargon was became more and more a priestly city, living on its ancient accepted as king by the Babylonian priests, and the prestige and merging its ruler into a pontiff. From hence- legitimacy of his rule was acknowledged up to the time of forth, down to the Persian era, it was the religious head of his murder in 705 b.c. Sennacherib, who followed him the civilized east. as king of Assyria, was never crowned at Babylon, the One of the earlier Kassite kings was Agum-kakrime, | result being revolt after revolt on the part of the Babywho recovered the images of Merodach and his consort, lonians, who found supporters in the Elamites. At length which had been carried away to Khani. At a later date (in 691 b.c.) a decisive battle was fought at Khalule. Kadasman-Bel and Burna-buryas I. corresponded with the Both sides claimed the victory, but the Elamites retired Egyptian Pharaohs Amon-hotep III. and Amon-hotep IV. from the struggle, and the Babylonians were too exhausted (1400 b.c.). The Assyrian king Assur-yuballidh still owned to face their invaders again in the open field. Two years, allegiance to his Babylonian suzerain, and intermarriages however, were still required for the complete subjugation took place between the royal families of Assyria and of the country, and it was not till 689 b.c. that Babylon Babylonia. Babylonia, moreover, still sought opportuni- was taken, its houses and temples razed to the ties of recovering its old supremacy in Palestine, which the ground, the images of its gods broken in pieces, Destruct,on conquests of the eighteenth dynasty had made an Egyptian and the ruins of the city thrown into the canal °f Baby,onprovince, and along with Mitanni or Aram-Xaharaim and Arakhtu. The catastrophe aroused a feeling of horror the Hittites intrigued against the Egyptian Government and indignation throughout Western Asia, and the murder with disaffected conspirators in the west. After the death of its perpetrator nine years afterwards was regarded by the of Burna-buryas, however, civil war in Babylonia led to Babylonians as the punishment inflicted on him by heaven. Assyrian interference in the affairs of the country, and The murder took place on the 20th of Tebet (681 b.c.), from this time forward even the nominal obedience of and for forty-two days the conspirators held the capital; Assyria to its old suzerain was at an end. Frequent wars then they were forced to fly to Ararat, against which an broke out between the two nations, and eventually (about Assyrian army, under the command of Esar-haddon, was 1280 B.c.) Tiglath-Ninip of Assyria, in the fifth carrying on hostilities. A battle was fought with the re n conquest year °f ig j AaPturec^ Babylon and sent Armenian and rebel Assyrian forces near Malatiyeh on the of Babylon, the treasures of E-Saggil, the temple of Bel- 12th of lyyar; the veterans of Assyria won the day, and Merodach, to Assur. For seven years the at the close of it saluted Esar-haddon as king. He thereAssyrian monarch reigned over Babylonia, then a revolt upon returned to Xineveh, and on the 8th of Sivan obliged him to retire; Hadad-nadin-sumi of the native (May) formally ascended the throne.