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CEYLON 646 Rs.5,62,95,525 Exports to United Kingdom unprofitable, and in 1900 the export fell to 510,000 lb bark ; 1,80,86,205 ,, ,, British Colonies but with higher prices there is likely to be a revival of the pro2,05,80,047 ,, ,, Foreign countries duct in Ceylon. More important, however, among new planting products is cacao (the “chocolate plant”), the growth and export Rs.9,49,62,277 of which have steadily extended since coffee failed, so that in 1899 the export was 42,745 cwt. Important also is the spice or i.e., goods to the value of nearly 4 millions sterling went to the aromatic product of cardamoms, of which the annual export is United Kingdom out of a total export valued at £6,350,000 now about 540,000 lb. sterling. The culture oi indiarubber has been begun on low-country plantaShipping and Navigation.—The headquarters of the mail tions, and the industry is full of promise. The area of cultivation steamers have been removed from Galle to Colombo, where a of the cocoa-nut palm has been greatly extended since 1875 by magnificent breakwater has been constructed and other harbour natives as well as by Europeans. The products of this palm that works have been undertaken. There has been a great increase in are exported, apart from those so extensively used in the island the number and tonnage of the vessels calling and coaling, as itself, exceed in a good year £1,000,000 sterling in value. The also a great development in the coasting trade. The total tonnage native trade in cinnamon has likewise greatly increased. The of vessels entered and cleared in 1900 was 8,316,191, of which export of bales and chips increased from 2,335,961 lb in 1890 5,889,702 tons belonged to the United Kingdom, 207,026 tons to to 4,541,517 lb in 1900 ; of oil, from 108,787 oz. in 1890 to British colonies, and 2,219,463 tons to foreign countries. Railways and Roads.—The railway system has developed from 118,778 oz. in 1899, when also over 800,000 lb of wild cinnamon were exported. Of citronella oil, 1,478,756 lb were exported in 100 to 297 miles in length, including one of the finest mountain 1899 as compared with 909,942 lb in 1890, while of coir rope, lines in the world—over 160 miles long, rising to 6200 feet above yarn, and fibre—the amount rose from just over 120,000 cwt. to sea-level, and falling at the present terminus to 4000 feet. The close on 215,000 cwt. in 1900, the increase being almost entirely towns of Kandy, Matale, Gampola, Nawalapitiya, Hatton, and in the export of fibre. It is expected that viticulture, cotton culti- Haputale (and practically Nuwara Eliya) in the hills, are thus vation, and tobacco growing, the last of which is already freely connected by rail, and in the low country the towns of Kurucarried on in the north and north-east districts, will be greatly negala, Galle, Matara, Kalutara, &c. These 297 miles (all developed along the course of the new northern railway. A scheme Government) cost about 53 millions of rupees, but most of the for growing sugar in the north-east of the island on a large scale debt is paid off', and the traffic receipts now make up nearly oneis now under consideration. In January 1892 the immemorial third of the general revenue. At present 200 miles more of rent or tax on fields oi paddy (rice in the husk) was removed, but railway are under construction (all on the same wide 5^-feet not the customs duty on imported rice. But even with the gauge) to connect Jaffna and the north with the rest of the advantageof “protection” to the extent of 10 per cent, in the local island. This northern line will run from Kurunegala rid markets, there has been no extension of paddy cultivation ; on the Anuradhapura, “the buried city” and earliest capital of the contrary, the import of grain from India grows larger year by Sinhalese, through the centre of the island and across the Jaff'na year. In connexion with the liberal project of railway extension peninsula. Two lines on a narrow (2J-feet) gauge are also under (see below), systematic expenditure on irrigation works, up to construction—(1) to connect Colombo through Cotta also an Rs. 5,00,000 (to be included in the public loan for railways) is early royal Sinhalese seat—with Avisawella and the Kelani valley to be undertaken, and a separate irrigation department has been tea-growing district, 45 miles ; and (2) to connect Kanuoya, on formed to secure full attention in prosecuting the selected under- the main line, with the sanatorium (Nuwara Eliya) and on to takings. Among these will be the full restoration of the Giant’s Udapusilava, over 20 miles. Other hill lines will follow, and Tank°in the arid Mannar district, around which possibly some of also, probably, a prolongation of the Kelani railway through the surplus population of southern India may be settled to culti- Colombo and northwards to the towns of Negombo, Chilaw, and vate rice, cotton, and perhaps tobacco, besides other vegetables Puttalam, serving one of the richest and most populous ot native necessary to their subsistence. Through these multiplied irriga- districts. The 270 additional miles actually sanctioned and tion works, also, and the northern railway, rice culture may be under construction will cost over 15 millions of rupees. An sufficiently extended to save some of the large imports (8,000,000 Indo-Ceylon railway to connect the Indian and Ceylon systems to 9,000,000 bushels annually) now required from India. has been the subject of separate reports and estimates by engineers Taking the trade in the products mentioned as a whole, no serving the Ceylon and Indian Governments, who have pronounced country can compete with the United Kingdom as a customer the work across the coral reel between Mannar and Rameswaram of Ceylon. But there is a considerable trade in nearly all pro- quite feasible. Such a line is sure to be made for strategic as ducts with Germany and America ; in cardamoms with India , well as commercial purposes, and Colombo will then be more than in cinnamon with Spain, Italy, Belgium, Australia, Austria, and ever the port for Southern India. Ceylon has now about 3800 France ; in some or other of the products of the cocoa-nut palm miles of high roads, mostly macadamized, and the maintenance (cocoa-nuts, cocoa-nut oil, copra, desiccated cocoa-nut, poonac, coir) of these costs annually Rs.15,00,000 (or £100,000). There are with Belgium, Russia, France, Austria, Australia, and Holland ; besides perhaps 10,000 miles of minor—estate and village—roads. Banks and Currency.—Ceylon has agencies of the National and in plumbago with Belgium. Pearl Fishery.—Since 1874 there have been ten years with more Bank of India, Bank of Madras, Mercantile Bank of India, or less successful fisheries at Arippu, on the north-west coast, the Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China, and ot the Honglatest and most successful being in 1891, when over £86,000 was kong and Shanghai Bank, besides mercantile agencies of other gained by the Government. Seventeen years were blanks. Capt. banks. Also a Government Savings Bank at Colombo and Post Donnan, on his inspection in March 1901, reported a prospect of Office Savings Banks all over the island. In 1884, on the failure successful fisheries in 1904. Professor Herdman, F.R.S., was of the Oriental Bank, the notes in currency were guaranteed by appointed to inquire and report on the conservation and Government, and a Government note currency was started in cultivation of the Ceylon pearl-oyster, and visits Ceylon in supersession of bank notes. This note currency has now reached January 1902. an average of 12 millions of rupees, giving an annual income Manufactures. —Little is done save in the preparation in to Government exceeding Rs.2,00,000. The banks’ clearing-house factories and stores, in Colombo or on the plantations, of the returns for Colombo show nearly 200 million rupees of cheques several products exported. The manufacture of jewellery and per annum. The Savings Bank shows nearly 2 millions of rupees preparation of precious stones, and, among native women and lodged from 13,000 depositors, besides small deposits in post children, of pillow lace, give employment to several thousands. office, and several provident funds. The coin currency of Ceylon Iron and0- engineering works are numerous in Colombo and in the is in rupees and decimals of a rupee, the value of the standard plantin districts. The Sinhalese are skilful cabinetmakers and following that fixed for the Indian rupee, about Is. 4d. per rupee. carpenters. The Moormen and Tamils furnish good masons and Of specie in 1900 the value imported was Rs. 11,95,502 ; exported, builders. , Rs. 29,19,796. OoTYivicvcc,—There has been rapid, development since 188.2, and Authorities.—General works are : Major Skinner, C.M.G. the returns for 1900 showed a total value for imports (including Fifty Years in Ceylon. London and Colombo.—Miss Gordon specie) of 122 millions of rupees (say, £8,130,000). The principal Gumming. Happy Years in Ceylon. London, 1891.—Cave. items were : articles of food and drink (chiefly rice from India), Picturesque Two Ceylon, in a series of illustrated volumes. London over 3 millions sterling ; manufactured metals (with specie), and Colombo.—Ferguson. “ Papers on Ceylon,” in Proceedings £1,000,000; coal, 590,000 tons; cotton yarns and piece goods from Royal Colonial Institute, April 1892 and December 1899, and in Manchester, about half a million sterling ; machinery and millSociety of Arts Journal, December 1899 ; also Ceylon Handbook work, £160,000 ; apparel, &c., £150,000. The Ceylon customs and 1901. Colombo.—Davidson. Official Handbook tariff’for imports is one of 6| per cwt. ad valorem, save m the and Directory, of the Ceylon Court, The Paris Exhibition, 1900, case of intoxicating drinks, arms, ammunition, opium, &c. The with Catalogue maps and illustrations. Colombo. total value of the exports, including specie, for 1900 was 9o Special works are: Dr. Trimen, F.R.S., Director of Ceylon millions of rupees, or £6,400,000 ; tea was valued at neaily Botanic Gardens. Ceylon Flora, in 5 vols., completed by Sir £3,500,000, and products of the cocoa-nut palm at £1,100,000. Joseph Hooker.—Captain V. Legge, F.Z.S. History of the Birds For 1900 the export trade was as follows : —