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652

CHAMBON — CHAMPAIGN

Cumberland Valley, in the southern part of the state, at liberty, “ and above all honesty.” Again, on 4th September an altitude of 613 feet. It has three railways, the 1870, after the fall of the empire, he invited Frenchmen Cumberland Valley, the Western Maryland, and the Mont to accept a government “ whose basis was right and whose Alto. Population (1880), 6877; (1890), 7863; (1900), principle was honesty,” and promised to drive the enemy from French soil. These vague phrases, offered as a 8864, of whom 769 were negroes. panacea to a nation fighting for its life, showed conCham bon, L.C, or Le Chambon-Feugerolles, clusively his want of all political genius; they had as a town of France,/ department of Loire, in the arron- little effect on the Trench as his protest against the dissement of St Etienne, and 5^- miles S.W. of that bombardment of Paris had on the Germans. Yet fortune town by rail, on a tributary of the Loire. Coal is favoured him. The elections placed the Republican party mined in the neighbourhood, and there are forges, steel in a minority in the National Assembly; the abrogation works, manufacture of ironmongery, and silk mills. The of the law of exile against the royal family permitted ancient castle of Feugerolles is noteworthy. Population him to return to his castle of Chambord; and it was (1901), 11,528. thence that on 5th July 1871 he issued a proclamation, Chambord, Henri Charles Ferdinand in which for the first time he publicly posed as king, and Marie Dieudonn^, Comte de (1820-1883), declared that he would never abandon the white standard was born in Paris on 29th September 1820. His father of the Bourbons, “the flag of Henry IV., Francis L, and was the due de Berry, the elder son of the comte Joan of Arc,” for the tricolour of the Revolution. He d’Artois (afterwards Charles X.); his mother was the again quitted France, and answered the attempts to make Princess Marie Caroline of Naples. Born seven months him renounce his claims in favour of the comte de Paris after the assassination of his father, he was hailed as the by the declaration (25th January 1872) that he would “ enfant du miracle,” and was made the subject of one of never abdicate. In the following month he held a great Lamartine’s most famous poems. He was created due gathering of his adherents at Antwerp, which was the de Bordeaux, and in 1821, as the result of a subscription cause of serious disturbances. A constitutional programme, organized by the Government, received the chateau of signed by some 280 members of the National Assembly, Chambord.1 He was educated by tutors inspired by was presented for his acceptance, but without result. The detestation of the French Revolution and its principles, fall of Thiers in May 1873, however, offered an opporand from the due de Hamas in particular imbibed those tunity to the Royalists by which they hastened to profit. ideas of divine right and of devotion to the Church to The comte de Paris and the prince de Joinville journeyed which he always remained true. After the revolution of to Frohsdorf, and were formally reconciled with the head July, Charles X. vainly endeavoured to save the Bourbon of the family (5th August). The Royalists were united, premier (the due de Broglie) an open adherent, the cause by abdicating in his favour and proclaiming him the president (MacMahon) a benevolent neutral. MM. Lucien king under the title of Henry V. (2nd August 1830). Brun and Chesnelong were sent to interview the comte de The comte de Chambord accompanied his grandfather into exile, and resided successively at Holyrood, Prague, Chambord at Salzburg, and obtain the definite assurances and Gorz. In 1841, during an extensive tour through that alone were wanting. They returned with the news that Europe, he broke his leg—an accident that resulted in he accepted the principles of the French Revolution and the permanent lameness. The death of his grandfather, tricolour flag. But a letter to Chesnelong, dated Salzbuig, Charles X., in 1836, and of his uncle, the due 27th October, declared that he had been misunderstood : d’Angouleme, in 1844, left him the last male representa- he would give no guarantees ; he would not inaugurate tive of the elder branch of the Bourbon family; but his his reign by an act of weakness, nor become “le roi marriage with the Archduchess Maria Theresa, eldest legitime de la Revolution.” “ Je suis le pilot necessaire, daughter of the duke of Modena (7th November 1846), he added, “le seul capable de conduire le navire au port, remained without issue. The title to the throne thus parce que j’ai mission et autorite pour cela.” This outpassed to the comte de Paris, as representative of the spoken adherence to the principle of divine right did Orleans branch of the house of Bourbon, and the history credit to his honesty, but it cost him the crown. The of the comte de Chambord’s life is largely an account of due de Broglie carried the septennate, and the Republic the efforts made to unite the Royalist party by effecting steadily established itself in popular favour. A last effort a reconciliation between the two princes. Though he was made in the National Assembly in June 18 i 4 by the continued to hold an informal court, both on his travels due de la Rochefoucauld-Bisaccia, who formally moved and at his castle of Frohsdorf, near Vienna, yet he allowed the restoration of the monarchy. The comte de Chambord the revolution of 1848 and the coup d'etat of 1851 to on 2nd July issued a fresh manifesto, which added nothing pass without any decisive assertion of his claims. It was to his former declarations. The motion was rejected by the Italian war of 1859, with its menace to the Pope’s 272 to 79, and on 25th February 1875 the Assembly independence, that roused him at last to activity. He definitely adopted the Republic as the national form of declared himself ready “to pay with his blood for the government. From this time the comte de Chambord, triumph of a cause which was that of France, the Church, though continuing to publish letters on political aflairs, and God Himself.” Making common cause with the made no further effort to regain the throne. He died at Church the Royalists now began an active campaign Frohsdorf on 24th August 1883. See Manifestes et programmes politiques de M. le comte de Chamagainst5the empire. On 9th December 1866 he addressed bord, 1848-73 (1873), and Correspondance de la famille royale et a manifesto to General Saint-Priest, in which he declared principalement de Mgr. le comte de Chambord avec le comte de the cause of the Pope to be that of society and liberty, BouilU (1884). Of the enormous literature relating to him, and held out promises of retrenchment, civil and religious mention may be made of Henri V. et la monarchic traditionelle (1871), Le Comte de Chambord itud.U dans ses voyages et sa 1 This chateau is in the arrondissement of Blois, department of correspondance (1880), and Henri de France, by H. be PEne (1885). Loir-et-Cher, France, 10 miles E.S.E. of Blois. The park covers an (h. Sy.) area of 13 000 acres, of which 11,000 are under wood. The work of Champaign, a city of Champaign county, Illinois, rebuilding the castle was undertaken by the comte de Chambord, continued till his death in 1883, and subsequently carried on by Ins U.S.A., situated in the eastern part of the state, on successor, Prince John of Parma. Only the northern portion is com- Embarras river, at an altitude of 740 feet. It is the seat pleted. It comprises two square blocks. The castle has 440 apart- of the state university, which had in 1898 a staff of ments, and the stables are said to have stalls for 1200 horses.