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CHAMPARAN — CHANGARNIER professors and instructors numbering 183, and was attended by 1582 students, including 245 women. Its property was valued at $1,544,000, and it had an income of $355,000. The city is on the Illinois Central, the Wabash, and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St Louis railways. Population (1880), 5103; (1890), 6021; (1900), 9098 (973 foreign-born and 404 negroes). Champdran, or Chumparun, a district of British India, in the Patna division of Bengal, occupies the north-west corner of Behar, lying between the two rivers Gandak and Baghmati and the Nepal hills. It has an area of 3531 square miles. Population (1881), 1,721,608 ; (1891), 1,859,465, showing an increase of 8 per cent.; average density, 527 persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, Hindus in 1891 numbered 1,590,044 ; Mahommedans, 267,319; Christians, 2100, of whom 140 were Europeans; “others,” 2. In 1901 the population was 1,791,026, showing a decrease of 4 per cent. The land revenue and rates are Rs.8,45,224 ; the number of police is 385; the number of boys at school (1896-97) is 16,062, being 12‘3 per cent, of the male population of school-going age, the lowest rate in the whole province; the registered death-rate (1897) is 34‘79 per thousand. The adminstrative headquarters are at Motihari (population, 13,108) ; Bettia is the centre of a very large estate; Segowlie, still a small military station, was the scene of a massacre during the Mutiny. Champaran is the chief seat of indigo planting in Behar. There are 18 concerns with 42 outworks, employing 37,000 hands, and producing an out-turn valued at Rs. 22,00,000. There are also 44 saltpetre refineries, with an out-turn valued at Rs. 3,09,000. The district sufiered severely from drought in 1866 and 1874, and again in 1897. In the last year a small Government canal irrigated 11,000 acres, for which no water-rates are charged; and a canal from the Gandak will irrigate 85,000 acres. The district is traversed almost throughout its length to Bettia by the Tirhut state railway. A considerable trade is conducted with Nepal. Champigny, a town in the arrondissement of Sceaux, department of Seine, France, 7% miles E.S.E. of Paris by rail, on the river Marne. There is a chapel in the early Renaissance style with fine stained glass. The town has manufactures of embroideries and piano-keys; and market-gardening is carried on in the vicinity. It was the scene, in 1870, of two battles during the Franco-Prussian war. A handsome monument, with crypt containing the remains of those who fell, both French and German, has been erected on the neighbouring height of Coeuilly. Population (1901), 6578. Chan cel lorsvi lie, a village of Spottsyl vania county, Virginia, U.S.A., situated almost midway between Washington and Richmond, Virginia. It was the central point of one of the greatest battles of the Civil War, 2nd and 3rd May 1863, between the Union “army of the Potomac ” under General Hooker, and the Confederate “army of Northern Virginia” under General Lee. The former, numbering about 120,000 men, crossed Rappahannock river and advanced upon the Confederates, who numbered about 60,000. After two days of severe fighting, in which the Union army lost 18,000 men and the Confederates 13,000, Hooker retreated with his army across the Rappahannock, his forward movement having been checked. Among the killed on the Confederate side was General “ Stonewall ” Jackson. Chanda, a town and district of British India, in the Nagpur division of the Central Provinces. In 1881 the population of the town was 16,137, and in 1891 it was 16,175. Chanda was the capital of an ancient Gond king-


dom, and is still surrounded by a stone wall 5|- miles in circuit. It has several old temples and tombs. There are manufactures of cotton, silk, brass-ware, and leather slippers, and a considerable local trade. The district of Chanda has an area of 10,749 square miles. The population in 1881 was 649,146, and in 1891 was 697,610, showing an increase of 8 per cent, and an average density of 65 per square mile. In 1901 the population was 589,399, showing a decrease of 15 per cent. The land revenue and rates were Rs.3,34,441, the incidence of assessment being Rs.0:2:9 per acre ; the cultivated area in 1897-98 was 818,434 acres, of which 157,307 were irrigated almost entirely from tanks or artificial lakes ; the number of police was 531; boys at school in 1896-97 numbered 7356, being 13'9 per cent, of the male population of school-going age; the registered death-rate in 1897 was 41‘71 per thousand. The principal crops are rice, millet, pulse, wheat, oil-seeds, and cotton. The district contains the coal-field of Warora, which is connected by a branch with the Nagpur line of the Great Indian Peninsula railway. The mine, which is worked by Government, employs about 1400 hands. In 1897-98 the output was 115,682 tons, and the gross receipts were Rs.5,40,759, yielding a returd of 7'7 per cent, on the capital. There is a fireclay industry under the same management. The district suffered severely from famine in 1900, when in April the number of persons relieved rose to 90,000. Chandausi, a town of British India, in the Moradabad district of the North-West Provinces, 28 miles S. of Moradabad. Its population in 1891 was 28,111, and its municipal income in 1897-98 was Rs.21,837. It is an important station on the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway, with a junction for Aligarh. Its chief exports are of cotton, sugar, and stone. There is a factory for pressing cotton. Changarnier, Nicolas-AnneTheod u I e (1793-1877), French general, was born at Autun, Saone-et-Loire, on 26th April 1793. Educated at St Cyr, he served for a short time in one of the privileged companies of the bodyguard of Louis XVIII., and entered the 60th regiment of the line as a lieutenant in January 1815. He achieved distinction in the Spanish campaign of 1823, and became a captain in October 1825. In 1830 he entered the Royal Guard and was sent to Africa, where he took part in the Mascara expedition. Promoted major in 1835, he distinguished himself under Marshal Clausel in the campaign against Achmet Bey, and became a lieutenant-colonel in 1837. The part he took in the expedition of Fortes-de-Fer gained him a colonelcy, and his success against the Hadjoutes and Kabyles the cross of the Legion of Honour. Three more years of brilliant service in Africa, during which he assisted in subjugating the tribes near Tenes, and was wounded at Medeah, won for him the rank of lieutenantgeneral of division in 1843, and the Algiers divisional command in 1847. He visited France early in 1848, assisted the provisional Government to establish order, and returned to Africa in May to succeed General Cavaignac in the government of Algeria. He was speedily recalled on his election to the General Assembly for the department of the Seine, and received the command of the National Guard of Paris, to which was added soon afterwards that of the troops in Paris, altogether nearly 100,000 men. He held a high place and exercised great influence in the complicated politics of the next two years (grand cross of the Legion of Honour, 5th April 1849). An avowed enemy of republican institutions, he held a unique position in upholding the power of the President; but in January 1851 he opposed Louis Napoleon’s policy, was in consequence deprived of