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190 THE FOUNDATION OF BRITISH RULE IN INDIA. closed his frontier against Maratha invasions ; he bettered the Company's finances in Bengal by a million sterling a year in both its revenue and expenditure : say two millions per annum. Fines on Chait Singh and on the Oudh Begam. — Has- tings further improved the financial position of the Company by contributions from Chait Singh and from the Begam of Oudh. Chait Singh, the Raja of Benares, had grown rich under British protection. He resisted the just demand of Warren Hastings to subsidize a military force, and entered into correspondence with the enemies of the British Government. This led to his arrest. He escaped, headed a rebellion, and was crushed. His estates were forfeited, but transferred to his nephew, subject to an increased tribute. The Begam, or Queen-Mother, of Oudh was charged with abetting Chait Singh, the Benares Raja, in his rebellion. A heavy fine was laid upon her, which she resisted to the utmost. But after severe pressure on herself and the eunuchs of her household, over a million sterling was obtained. Hastings' Trial in England, 1788-1795. — On his return to England, Warren Hastings was impeached by the House of Commons for these and other alleged acts of oppression. He was solemnly tried by the House of Lords, and the proceed- ings dragged themselves out for seven years (1788-1795). They form one of the most celebrated State trials in English history, and ended in a verdict, of not guilty on all the charges. Meanwhile the cost of the defence had ruined Warren Hastings, and left him dependent upon the generosity of the Court of Directors, — a generosity which never failed. First Maratha War, 1779-1781. — The Bombay Govern- ment looked with envy on the territorial conquests of Madras and Bengal. It accordingly resolved to establish its supremacy at the Mardtha court of Poona. This ambition found scope, in 1775, by the treaty of Surat, by which Raghuba, one of the claimants to the headship of the Marathas as Peshwa, agreed to cede Salsette and Bassein to the English, in consideration oi being himself restored to Poona. The military operations that followed are known as the first Marithd war (see p. 162). Warren Hastings, who in his capacity of Governor-General