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252 INDEX. 194 ; ceded the Doab and Rohil- khand (1801), 195 ; annexation of (1856), 219, 220; the Mutiny of 1857 in, 226, 227; peasant rights secured in, 231. Outram, Gen.. Sir James, tamed the Ehils, 43 ; assumed government of Oudh (1856), 219 ; at relief of Lucknow (1857), 226. Palegars of the Madras Presidency, their origin, 129, 130; practically independent, 177, 178. Pandya, ancient Hindu kingdom in Southern India, 127. . Panini compiled a Sanskrit grammar (about 350 B.C.), 63. Panipat, defeat of Ibrahim Lodi at, by Babar (1526), 132; defeat of the Afghans by Akbar at (1556), 133; defeat of the Marathas by Ahmad Shah Durani at (1761;, Il; 3i '59! camp of exercise at (1886), 235. Panniar, battle of (1843), 2)2. Parasnath, sacred mountain, 28. Partial character of the Muham- madan conquests, 112, 113. Patna, the capital of Chandra Gupta, 87 ; massacre at, by Mir Kasim (1763), 184. Peacock throne of Shah Jahan, 144. Pearse, Col., his march from Cal- cutta southwards, T91. Pegu, annexation of (1852"), 216. People, the, of India, 32-39. See Table of Contents, chap. ii. Perambakam,Bailliedefeatedat,i9i. Permanent Settlement of Bengal (1793), 193. Peshawar, taken by Subuktigin, 113; Mahmud of Ghazni defeated at, 114; taken by Ranjit Singh, 213. Pindaris, the (1804-17), 202 ; de- feated by Lord Hastings, 202 , 203. Plassey, battle of (1757), 180, 181. Poetry, epic, of the Brahmans — the stories of the Mahabharata and Ramayana, 66-71. Poetry, lyric, of the Brahmans, 72. Pollock, Gen. Sir George, his march from the Punjab to Jalalabad and Kabul (1842), 211. Polyandry among the Nairs in Southern India and the northern Himalayan tribes, 42, 43, 66 ; of Draupadi in the Mahabharata, 68. Pondicherri besieged by Boscawen (1748), 178; taken by Coote (1761), 179. Popham, Maj., takes fort of Gwalior, 191. Population, density of the Indian, 36 ; town and rural population, 36 ; overcrowded and under-peopled districts, 36, 37 ; distribution of the people, 37 ; nomadic system of husbandry, 37 ; rise of rents in crowded districts, 37, 38. Portuguese in India, their history and ancient power, 164-166 ; their present possessions, 166. Porus, Hindu sovereign defeated by Alexander the Great, 85, 86. Potato-cultivation in the Himalayas, method and effects of, 21. Prakrit, the spoken language of ancient India. 63. Pre-historic remains in India, 40. Prendergast, Gen. Sir H., conquers Upper Burma (1885), 235. Prithwi Raja, the, of Delhi and Aj- mere, defeated by Muhammad of Ghor(1193), 117. Proclamation, the Queen's, of 1 No- vember, 1858, 223, 230. Products and scenery of the Hima- layas, 20, 21 ; of the northern river plains and Bengal Delta, 26, 27 ; of the southern table-land, 28-30. Prussian East India Companies, 174. Puliyars, wild tribe in Madras, 42. Punjab, the, Aryans settled down in, ,54 ; Alexander the Great's cam- paign in, 85, 86 ; Kanishka's king- dom in, 90, 91 ; conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni, 115; ravaged by Gbakkars and Mewatis, 1 20 ; devastated by the Afghans, 152; the kingdom of Ranjit Singh, 213; annexed (1849), 215 ; pacification of, 215, 216; loyalty of in the Mutiny of 1857, 225, 226. Puranas, the, Sanskrit theological works, 103. Races of prehistoric India. See Aryans, Non-Aryans.