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16. Serenade for small orchestra in A.
17. 4 songs for female Chorus, 2 Horns and Harp.
18. Sextet in B♭ for Strings.
19. Five poems for voice and P. F.
20. Three duets for S. and A. with P. F.
21. Variations for P. F.:
(1) On original theme;
(2) On a Hungarian melody.
22. 7 'Marienlieder' for mixed choir, in 2 parts.
23. Variations for P. F., 4 hands, on a theme of Schumann's.
24. Variations and Fugue for P. F. on theme of Handel's.
25. Quartet in G minor for P. F. and Strings.
26. Quartet in A for ditto.
27. Psalm xiii. for women's voices, with Organ or P. F.
28. Four Duets for Alto and Baritone with P. F.
29. Two Motets for 5 voices, à capella.
30. Sacred Song by Paul Flemming. 4 voices, mixed Choir and Organ.
31. Three Quartets for S.A.T.B.
32. 9 Songs by A. von Platen and G. F. Daumer. For voice and P. F. in 2 parts.
33. 15 Romances from Tieck's 'Magelone' for voice and P. F. in 5 parts.
34. Quintet for P. F. and Strings in F minor.
34a. Sonata for P. F., 4 hands, from the foregoing.
35. 21 Variations (Studien) for P. F. solo on a theme of Paganini's.
36. Sextet in G for Strings.
37. Three Sacred Choruses for female voices.
38. Sonata in E minor for P. F. and Cello.
39. 15 Waltzes for P. F.: 4 hands.
40. Trio for P. F., Violin and Horn or Cello.
41. Five Part Songs for 4 men's voices.
42. Three Songs for Chorus, à capella. 6 v.
43. Four Songs for 1 voice and P. F.
44. Twelve Songs and Romances for female chorus, à capella.
45. German Requiem, Solo, Chorus and Orch.
46. Four Songs for 1 voice with P. F.
47. Four ditto, ditto.
48. Seven ditto, ditto.
49. Five ditto, ditto.
50. Rinaldo; Cantata by Goethe, for Tenor Solo, Male Chorus, and Orch.
51. Two Quartets for Strings, C minor and A minor.
52. Liebeslieder; Waltzes for P. F., 4 hands, and voices.
53. Rhapsodie; fragments from Goethe's 'Harzreise' for Alto Solo, Male Chorus, and Orch.
54. Schicksalied (Song of Destiny) by F. Hölderlin. for Chorus and Orch.
55. Triumphlied (Rev., chap. xix.) for 8-part Chorus and Orch.
56a. Variations on a theme of Haydn's for Orchestra.
56b. Ditto. ditto, for 2 Pianos.
57. 8 Songs by Daumer for 1 voice and P. F.
58. 8 Songs for 1 voice and P. F.
59. 8 Songs for 1 voice and P. F.
60. Quartet (No. 3) In C minor for P. F. and Strings.
61. Four Duets for Sopr. and Alto.
62. Seven Songs for mixed Choir.
63. 9 Lieder and Gesänge for voice and P. F.
64. 3 Quartets for 4 solo voices and P.F.
65. Neue Liebeslieder-Waltzes.
66. Five Duets.
67. String Quartet: B♭.
68. Symphony. No. 1, C minor.
69. Nine Songs.
70. Four Songs.
71. Five Songs.
72. Five Songs.
73. Symphony, No. 2, in D.

Without Opus-number.

Hungarian dances for P. F., 4 hands.
The same for Orchestra.
Gluck's Gavotte for P. F. solo.
Studies for P. F. solo:
(1) Etude after Chopin;
(2) Rondo after Weber.
15 Volkskinderliedchen.
Mondnacht, Song for 1 voice and P.F.

[ A. M. ]

[App. pp. 561–562 "The following is a list of Brahms's published compositions from June 1878 to March 1887:—

74. Two Motets.
75. 2 Ballads for 2 voices.
76. 8 Piano pieces (Capriccios and Intermezzos).
77. Concerto for Violin.
78. Sonata for PF. and Violin in G.
79. Two Rhapsodies for PF.
80. Academical Festival Overture.
81. Tragic Overture.
82. 'Naenie,' for Chorus and Orchestra.
83. PF. Concerto in B♭.
84. Romances and Songs for 1 or 2 voices.
85. Six Songs for 1 voice.
86. Six Songs for 1 voice.
87. Trio for PF. and Strings.
88. Quintet for Strings in F.
89. Gesang der Parzen, for 6-Part Chorus and Orch.
90. Symphony in F, No. 3.
91. 2 Songs for Alto with violin obbllgato.
92. 4 Vocal Quartets with Pf.
93. Songs and Romances for 4-part Chorus.
93a. Do. a capella.
93b. Tafllied (Eichendorff).
94. Five Songs for low voice.
95. Seven Songs.
96. Four Songs.
97. Six Songs.
98. Symphony in E minor, No. 4
99. Sonata for Violoncello and PF. in F.
100. Sonata for Violin and PF. in A.
101. Trio in C minor for PF. and strings.
102. Concerto for Violin and Violoncello in C.[1]

[App. p.819 adds:

Op. 103. Zigeunerlieder for 4 voices and PF. acct.
104. 5 Songs, a capella for mixed choir.
105. 6 Songs.
106. 5 Songs.
107. 5 Songs.
108. Sonata for violin and piano in D minor.

(Died Apr. 3, 1897.)"]

[ R. N. ]

BRAMBILLA, Marietta, eldest of five sisters, all distinguished singers, was born near Milan about 1807, and made her debut in London as Arsace in 'Semiramide' in 1827. She was a pupil of the Conservatorio at Milan, and had never appeared on any stage; but, though her acting was indifferent, her lovely contralto voice, her excellent style, youth, and great beauty, ensured her success. 'She has the finest eyes, the sweetest voice, and the best disposition in the world,' said a certain cardinal; 'if she is discovered to possess any other merits, the safety of the Catholic Church will require her excommunication.' She sang in London for several years, as well as in Italy; at Vienna during four consecutive seasons, 1837–1841; and at Paris, where she chose again Arsace for her début, and achieved a great success. Brambilla was distinguished as a teacher, and published (Ricordi) exercises and vocalizzi beside other pieces. [App. p.562 "Date of death, Nov. 6, 1875."]

[ J. M. ]

BRANDL, Johann, born Nov. 14, 1760, at Rohr, near Ratisbon, died at Carlsruhe May 26, 1837. He studied violin and piano as a child in the monastery at Rohr, and at 10 was sent by Canon Gelasius to the seminary at Munich. He learnt singing from Valesi; and at the Jesuit school at Neuburg, received a thorough musical education from a certain Feldmaier. He began his career in the convent of Trutpert, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, as teacher of the violin and piano. In 1784 he was appointed chapel-master to Prince Hohenlohe Bartenstein; in 1789 'musik-director' to the Bishop of Bruchsal; and in 1806 the same to the archduke of Baden at Carlsruhe, where he stayed till his death. He composed an opera, 'Hermann'; a monodrama, 'Hero'; and many symphonies, serenades, quartets, etc. His melodies are beautiful, and were highly esteemed, as may be seen by some articles in the Leipsic A. M. Z. for 1828.

[ F. G. ]

BRANLE (Fr. branle, a movement of the body from side to side). An old French dance, the generic name of all dances in which, like the Cotillon or Grossvater, the whole party of dancers were led by one or two. (Littré.) The branle of the time of Louis XIV was a branle serieux. It combined in itself the movements of the minuet and the polonaise. For an example of the music see p. 289.

[ E. P. ]

BRASS BAND. (Fr. Fanfare.) The smaller variety of the military band, chiefly employed in cavalry regiments, on account of the greater ease with which brass instruments can be played on horseback. It ordinarily consists of an E flat piccolo cornet, two or more cornets in B flat, two tenor saxhorns in E flat, one or more baritones and euphoniums, with one or more bombardons. Besides these, trumpets, and side-, bass-, or kettle-drums are usually present. It is materially improved by the substitution of flutes and E flat clarinets for the piccolo-cornet, and by the addition of trombones. It has not the variety of quality and richness of tone possessed by the full reed band, but is competent to produce very smooth and agreeable harmony. On account of the greater facility with which brass instruments of the saxhorn species are learned, as compared with clarinets and other reeds, a brass band it much more easy to establish and maintain in efficiency than a full military band.

[ W. H. S. ]

BRAVO, i.e. 'well done.' An Italian term of applause which has gone from Italy to other countries, though never taking very firm root in England. It was the custom in Italy to applaud, not only at the end of a piece or passage, but during the performance, and the bravos were addressed to composer, singer, or instrument—'Bravo Mozart!' 'Bravo Lablache!' 'Bravo il fagotto!' The word was there naturally inflected, and the applause to a female singer would be 'Brava Grisi!' Beethoven when satisfied with the orchestra used to give a 'thundering Bravi tutti.'

[ G. ]

BRAVURA (Ital., courage, bravery). A style of both music and execution involving the display of unusual brilliancy and technical power; music written to task the ability and test the

  1. A thematic catalogue of the composer's works has recently been published by Simrock.