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believed, is interesting. He introduced an alteration of one passage which so pleased Beethoven that he jumped up from his seat, threw his arms round Bridgetower, and cried ‘Noch einmal, mein lieber Bursch’—'Once more, my dear fellow.'

Czerny has left on record that Bridgetower's gestures in playing were so extravagant and absurd that no one could help laughing.

The memorandum just mentioned is given by Thayer ('Beethoven,' ii. 229); and further details will be found at pp. 227–231 and 385–391. See also Pohl's 'Haydn in London,' pp. 18, 28, 38, etc. Beethoven writes 'Brischdower.'

[ G. ]

BRIEGEL, Wolfgang Karl, church composer, born 1626, originally organist at Stettin, and afterwards (see the title-page of his then published works) Music-Director to Prince Friedenstein in Gotha, and in 1660 Kapellmeister to the Duke of Saxe Gotha. In 1670 he was called to Darmstadt as Kapellmeister to the Landgrave of Darmstadt, where he remained till his death in 1710. Among the remains of Emanuel Bach was a portrait of Briegel, engraved by Nessenthaler; it represents a man of about sixty-five, of healthy and jovial aspect, and with no trace of the labour involved in so many serious compositions. Schneider (das Musik. Lied, iii. 155) says, that 'perceiving the fashion of solo songs like those of Ad. Krieger and the two Ahles to be on the wane, he returned to the composition of songs for several voices; he wrote, in fact, incessantly in all sorts of styles with much fluency but no originality, and with no adequate return for his labours.' His principal compositions consisted of sacred songs for several voices, mostly to his own words. One of his works alone, for 3 and 4 instruments (Erfurt, 1652), contains 10 Paduaner, 10 Gagliarden, 10 Ballette, and 10 Couranten. His one secular work, 'Musikalisches Tafel-Confect' (Frankfort, 1672), consists, according to its quaint title, of 'pleasant Conversations and Concertos.' His Hymn-book for Darmstadt appeared in 1687. His published works, twenty-five in number, begin with 'Geistliche Arien und Concerte' (Erfurt, 1672), and end with 'Letzter Schwanen-Gesang,' consisting of twenty Trauergesänge for four or five voices (Giessen, 1709).

Gerber (Lexicon, 1812) gives a catalogue of his published works according to dates from Darmstadt, employed by Fétis in his 'Biographie Universelle.'

[ C. F. P. ]

BRIGHENTI, or BRIGHETTI, Mme. Marta (neé Giorgi), a celebrated singer, born at Bologna 1792; first appeared at Bologna in 1814. She created the part of Rosina at the first performance of the 'Barbiere di Siviglia' (Rome, 1816); and for her Rossini wrote 'La Cenerentola.' She sang in the principal towns of Italy, and retired in 1836. Mme. Brighenti embodied her recollections of Rossini, whom she had known from childhood, in an interesting book 'Cenni .... sopra il Maestro Rossini' (Bologna, 1823).

[ M. C. C. ]

BRIND, Richard, was brought up as a chorister in St. Paul's Cathedral. On the death in 1707 of Jeremiah Clark, organist of the cathedral, Brind was appointed his successor, and held the place until his death in 1718 [App. p.565 "March 1717–18"]. He composed for occasions of thankgiving two anthems now wholly forgotten.

[ W. H. H. ]

BRINDISI (Ital. far brindisi; Span. brindar, 'to drink one's health'), a drinking or toasting song. Well-known and popular examples are 'Il segreto' in 'Lucrecia Borgia,' and 'Libiamo' in the 'Traviata'—the latter written for chorus, with solos for soprano and tenor.

[ W. H. C. ]

BRISTOL MADRIGAL SOCIETY. The establishment of this society in 1837 was one of the fruits of a lecture on Madrigals given at Bristol by Professor Edward Taylor. The society was limited to thirty members, who were to meet on alternate Wednesdays at the Montague Tavern, to sing such madrigals as had been previously agreed upon by the committee; the late Mr. J. D. Corfe, organist of the Cathedral, was the director, and among the first members was Mr. Pearsall, the eminent madrigal writer. At the first annual dinner in 1838 Sir John Rogers and Mr. Thomas Oliphant, president and secretary of the London Madrigal Society, were present. In the same year it was resolved to give a 'Ladies' Night,' and in 1839 the number of these open performances was increased, owing to the demand for tickets, while ultimately the 'Ladies' Night' took the place of the annual dinner. In Feb. 1841 the Ladies' Nights were suspended, but at the end of 1842 they were recommenced at the Victoria Rooms, with an audience of 1200, and have since been continued annually. The number of members has been increased to forty-two, and the meetings are still held at the Montague. The choir consists exclusively of male voices, the boys being selected from the cathedral choirs of Bristol, Oxford, Exeter, and other places. Mr. Corfe continued to direct the society till 1864, when he resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. D. Rootham, the present conductor. The open nights have always attracted a large number of eminent musicians, and among the frequent visitors in past years may be named Dr. C. Corfe, of Oxford; Sir G. J. Elvey and Dr. Stephen Elvey; the Rev. Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley, Bart.; Dr. Stainer, (then of Oxford); Mr. Amott, of Gloucester; Mr. Done, of Worcester; and Mr. Townshend Smith, of Hereford, who brought with them the most effective members of their respective choirs. During the period of Mr. Corfe's direction these gentlemen joined the choir of Bristol Cathedral at service on the day of the concert, a practice since discontinued. The music sung during the first twelve years of the society's existence was almost exclusively confined to madrigals, the exceptions being anthems by Tye and Creighton, and the works of Mr. Pearsall, but some of Mendelssohn's four-part songs were introduced at a concert in Jan. 1851, and have been frequently included since, with other choral works of the same class. The following was the programme at the society's first meeting on March 1,