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a Nisi Dominus, both for eight voices, and both in manuscript. Baini says that in the archives of the Pontifical Chapel there is a mass by Carissimi for twelve voices, written on the famous Provençal melody 'L'homme arme.' This is believed to be the last occasion on which that favourite theme was ever employed. The National Library in Paris has a rich manuscript collection of the oratorios of Carissimi. The following is a list of their names:—'La Plainte des Damnés'; 'Histoire de Job'; 'Ezéchias'; 'Baltazar'; 'David et Jonathas'; 'Abraham et Isaac'; 'Jephte'; 'Le Jugement Dernier'; 'Le Mauvais Riche'; 'Jonas'. Chief among these ranks the Jephthah, of which Hawkins has said that 'for sweetness of melody, artful modulation, and original harmony, it is justly esteemed one of the finest efforts of musical skill and genius that the world knows of.' Handel thought it worth while to borrow his chorus in 'Samson,' 'Hear Jacob's God' from a famous movement in the 'Jephte' called 'Plorate filise Israel.' Croft has imitated his 'Gaudeamus,' and Aldrich adapted his motets to English words for anthems. Hawkins prints a remarkably graceful little duet of Carissimi, called 'Dite, o Cieli.' It was in emulation of this piece, upon hearing it over-praised by King Charles II, that Dr. Blow composed his celebrated 'Go, perjured man.' The library of the French Conservatoire is rich in the manuscripts of Carissimi, and there are some valuable volumes of his music in the British Museum. But the magnificent collection of his works made by Dr. Aldrich at Oxford throws all others into the shade, and forms one of the special ornaments of the library at Christ Church. A few of his pieces are in the Musica Romana of Spiridione, and a few more, disfigured by French words, in the collection of 'Airs serieux et à boire,' published by Ballard. There are some motets of his in Stevens's 'Sacred Music,' and Crotch has published one or two examples in his 'Selections of Music.' Five specimens are printed in the 'Fitzwilliam Music.' Jephte, Judicium Salomonis, Jonas, and Baltazar have been published by Chrysander (Schott); and Jonah by Henry Leslie (Lamborn Cock). Enough has now been said to indicate where those who are interested in this master may form acquaintance with his work; and it only remains to add that the 'Judgment of Solomon,' a cantata often attributed to him, was in all probability not his, but the production of his pupil Cesti.

[ E. H. P. ]

CARLO, Geronimo, born at Reggio in the first half of the 16th century; author of a collection of five-part motets by eminent composers, Créquillon, Clemens non Papa, Ciera, etc., entitled 'Motetti del Labirinto,' 2 vols. (Venice, 1554 and 1555).

[ M. C. C. ]

CARLTON, Rev. Richard, Mus. Bac., published in 1601 a collection of twenty-one 'Madrigals for five voyces,' the preface to which is dated from Norwich. He had in the same year contributed a madrigal, 'Calme was the aire,' to 'The Triumphes of Oriana.' Nothing is known of his biography. One of the same name was in 1612 presented to the rectory of Bawsby and Glosthorp, Norfolk. [App. p.579 adds that "he was at Clare College, Cambridge, and took the degree of B.A. in 1577. Soon after his ordination he obtained an appointment at Norwich Cathedral. In Oct. 1612 he was presented by Thomas Thursby to the rectory of Bawsey (sic) and Glosthorp. (Dict, of Nat. Biog.)"

[ W. H. H. ]

CARMAGNOLE. The French song called 'La Carmagnole' is a popular tune originating in Provence. Grétry (Mémoires, iii. 13) thought it was originally a sailor-song often heard in Marseilles; it is more probably a country roundelay or dance-tune, adapted to a patriotic military song which was written either at the end of August or early in September, 1792. The four stanzas of this national song are known to a very few historians only; we transcribe the first couplet:—

'Le canon vient de résonner:
Guerriers, soyez prêts à marcher.
Citoyens et soldats,
En volant aux combats,
Dansons la carmagnole:
Vive le son, vive le son,
Dansons la carmagnole,
Vive le son
Du canon!'

The unknown author of these lines was probably some brave soldier, whilst the bloody 'Carmagnole des Royalistes' may be attributed to the worst of demagogues. The original eight stanzas of the latter began as follows:—

'Oui, je suis sans culotte, moi,
En dépit des amis du roi.
Vive les Marseillois,
Les Bretons et nos lois!'

But this new song was soon enlarged, and when published by Frère it contained thirteen stanzas, the first of which ran in the following manner, to the tune of the Carmagnole:—

{ \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \time 6/8 \key g \major \partial 4. \relative g' { \autoBeamOff r4 g8 b4 c8 d4 d8 | c4 e8 d4 d8 | c4 c8 b4. | g a4 a8 g4. r4 g8 | b4 c8 d4 d8 | c4 e8 d4 d8 | c4 c8 b4. | g4. a4 a8 | g4. d'4. | b4 b8 g4 b8 | a4. d | b4 b8 g4 g8 a4. r4 g8 | a4 a8 d4 d8 | b4 a8 b c d | g,4. g8 f e | d4. r4 g8 | a4 a8 d4 d8 | b4 a8 b c d | g,4. a4 f8 g4. r4 r8 \bar "||" }
\addlyrics { Ma -- dame Ve -- to a -- vait pro -- mis, Ma -- dame Ve -- to a -- vait pro -- mis, De faire é -- gor -- ger tout Pa -- ris, De faire é -- gor -- ger tout Pa -- ris; Mais son coup a man -- qué, Grace à nos ca -- non -- niers. Dan -- sons la Car -- ma -- gno -- le, Vi -- ve le son, vi -- ve le son, Dan -- son la Car -- ma -- gno -- le, Vi -- ve le son du ca -- non! } }

During the French Revolution a great many songs were adapted to this tune, which, in spite of its association with the Terreur, has often been introduced on the stage in vaudevilles or burlettas.

[ G. C. ]

CARMAN'S WHISTLE, THE, an old English tune found in the Virginal books of Lady Nevill (1591) and Queen Elizabeth (1603-12), in both with harmony and variations by Byrd.