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great measure to the management of S. Arthur Chappell, the younger brother. [Monday Popular Concerts.] A large concert-room had been much wanted at the west end of London, and St. James's Hall was projected and carried out mainly by the Chappells.

The pianoforte factory of Chappell and Co. is in Chalk Farm Road. The average of manufacture is from 25 to 30 pianos per week.

[ W.C. ]

CHAPPINGTON, John, built an organ in 1597 for Magdalen College, Oxford.

[ V. de P. ]

CHAPPLE, Samuel, was born at Crediton, in 1775. Whilst an infant he was deprived of sight by small-pox. At an early age he commenced the study of the violin, and when about fifteen was taught the pianoforte by a master named Eames, who had been a pupil of Thomas, a scholar of John Stanley—all blind men. In 1795 he was appointed organist of Ashburton, where he continued for upwards of forty years. He composed and published many anthems, songs, glees, and pianoforte sonatas. [App. p.584 adds "date of death, 1833."]

[ W. H. H. ]

CHARACTERISTIC. This term is sometimes applied to music which is designed as the expression of some special sentiment or circumstance. Thus in vocal music, if the melody is appropriate to the words, we may speak of the 'characteristic setting of the text.' In instrumental music, also, the word may be used where what is known as 'local colouring' is introduced; e.g. the 'Ranz des vaches' movement in Rossini's overture to 'Guillaume Tell' might be properly described as 'characteristic.' The term is also occasionally applied to programme music. Beethoven's sonata 'Adieu, Absence, and Return' is frequently entitled the 'Sonate Caracteristique,' though it does not appear that the title was given by the composer. He has, however, himself used it for the overture to Leonore, published as op. 138. (See Nottebohm's 'Them. Verzeichniss.') Spohr's 4th Symphony is entitled 'Die Weihe der Töne; charakteristisches Tongemülde,' &c.

[ E. P. ]

CHARD, George William, Mus. Doc., was born about 1765. He received his early musical education in the choir of St. Paul's under Robert Hudson, Mus. Bac. In 1787 he became lay clerk of Winchester Cathedral, and some years later [App. p.584 "in 1802"] was appointed organist of that church and of the adjacent college [App. p.584 adds "date of appointment to the College, 1832"]. In 1812 he took the degree of Doctor of Music at Cambridge. He composed some church music and other sacred pieces, some of which have been published, and some songs and glees; of the latter he published 'Twelve Glees, for three, four, and five voices.' He died May 23, 1849, aged 84.

[ W. H. H. ]

CHARITY CHILDREN, Meeting at St. Paul's. A festival service attended by the children of the old charity schools of the metropolis, is held annually in June under the dome of St. Paul's Cathedral, the children taking a prominent part in the singing. The first of these festivals was held in 1704, on the Thursday in Whitsunweek, at St. Andrew's, Holborn; the second in 1705 at St. Sepulchre's, where the service took place until 1738, when it was held at Christ Church, Newgate St., and was continued there until 1801. In that year the children met at the cathedral, where the services have since been held, except in 1860 when the cathedral was under repair and the schools assembled on the Handel orchestra at the Crystal Palace. On April 23, 1789, the children met at St. Paul's, when George the Third went in state to return thanks for his restoration to health; and, earlier still, on July 7, 1713, at the thanksgiving for the Peace of Utrecht they were assembled in the streets. The effect of the music has been recorded by many eminent musicians, including Haydn, in whose memorandum book in the Conservatoire at Vienna there is a note on the service, quoting Jones's double chant (Pohl's 'Haydn in London,' 212), and Berlioz, who was present in 1851 ('Soirées de l'Orchestre,' No. 21). The number of the children varies, but is generally between 5000 and 6000; they are arranged in an amphitheatre constructed for the occasion under the dome. The service, which includes the Hallelujah Chorus, is accompanied by the organ, trumpets, and drums. Up to 1863 the 113th psalm had been sung before the sermon, but in that year Mendelssohn's 'Sleepers, wake' was substituted for it. In 1865 Sir John Goss wrote a unison setting of the ' Te Deum,' which took the place of Boyce in A, and in 1866 he wrote a 'Jubilate' in the same form. Among the conductors have been Mr. Bates, Mr. H. Buckland, and Mr. Shoubridge.

[ C. M. ]

CHARLES THE SECOND. An English opera in two acts; the words by Desmond Ryan, the music by Macfarren. Produced at the Princess's Theatre Oct. 27, 1849.

[ G. ]

CHASSE, À LA, a term applied to music which intentionally imitates hunting or contains horn passages suggesting it. Such are Mehul's overture to 'Le Jeune Henri,' the hunting choruses in 'The Seasons,' and in 'Der Freischütz.' But this does not excuse the French publisher who entitled Beethoven's overture in C (op. 115) 'La Chasse,' because of a passage for two horns in the introduction, or the German publisher who followed him in designating it 'Jagd-ouverture.'

[ G. ]

CHATTERTON, John Balsie, eminent harpist, born at Norwich 1810 [App. p.584 "about 1802"], studied under Bochsa and Labarre [App. p.584 adds "first appearance at a concert of Aspull's in 1824"]; succeeded Bochsa as professor of the harp at the Royal Academy, and in 1844 [App. p.584 "1842"] was appointed harpist to the Queen. He retained both appointments till his death, which took place in London in 1871 [App. p.584 "April 11"]. Chatterton wrote much for the harp, chiefly operatic selections.

[ M. C. C. ]

CHAULIEU, Charles, born in Paris 1788 [App. p.584 "June 21"], died in London 1849, pianist; studied in the Conservatoire under Adam and Catel. In his earlier years he was a good teacher, but failed to keep pace with the progress of execution. In 1840 he settled in London. He arranged an immense quantity of opera airs for the pianoforte.