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promoting this kind of music. Each of these had its own theatre and vied with the others in the splendour and magnificence of its representations. Indeed, in the middle of the 16th century, the theatres of Italy, constructed in many cases by no less an architect than Palladio, and where the most melodious of all modern languages first appeared married to sweet harmony, were the wonder and admiration of the world.

The Florentine school of music differs from the other great schools of Italy in that the composers of dramatic music just enumerated were only amateurs, and had been for the most part trained in the great schools of Rome and Bologna. Nor did Florence ever produce any great composers of church music, although composer succeeded composer in that brilliant operatic music of which we have traced the first beginnings, until we arrive at the great Cherubini, who was a master in both the church and the theatre.

The present 'Royal Musical Institute' of Florence is of recent foundation, and was opened for public instruction in 1862. Its objects are, To teach the science, history, and practice of music; to maintain a public library of music; to grant rewards to deserving artists; to perform the best works of modern and ancient masters. It is an establishment for public and gratuitous instruction, and comprises three sections—that of administration; that of instruction; and the Academy. The administration is directed by a President, assisted by three Professors, who form the Council of Management. The department of instruction contains schools for the rudiments of music and musical reading; for solfeggio; for solo and part singing; for keyed, stringed, and wind instruments; for thorough bass, counterpoint, and composition; and for aesthetics and musical history. The Academy is composed of resident, corresponding, and honorary members. The Examiners are chosen from the resident members of the Academy, as are also the three members of the council of management. The number of pupils averages 220, and is regulated by the applications for admission, the result of the examinations, and the means available for imparting instruction.

[ C. M. P. ]

FLORID. Music in rapid figures, divisions, or passages, the stem of the simple melody bursting forth, as it were, into leaves and flowers. The image is the same as that in Fioriture. The Italian term is Figurato. Examples are hardly necessary; but the genesis of florid passages is highly interesting, and an instance or two, from the simplest form to the very highest art, may be forgiven.

Bach, Christmas Oratorio.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 3/8 \clef bass \relative c { c8 c c c g r c16[ c32 c] c16[ g c g] c8 g r } }

Haydn, Quartet 1.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \time 6/8 \key bes \major \partial 8 \relative f'' { f8 f f f bes f r r4 r8 r s f f g16 f g f bes8 f r } }

Mozart, G-minor Symphony

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 4/4 \key g \minor \relative f'' { f2 c4 a des'2 e,4 g f2 c'8 a c a des bes des bes e, g e g f4 } }

Beethoven, Concerto No. 5.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 4/4 \partial 4 \relative b' { b4\( c a e' d\) d2. b\( c8 a gis a c a e' d\) d2 } }

Do., Ninth Symphony (Adagio).

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 4/4 \key bes \major \relative d'' { d2\( a bes f4. ees8\) d4( f bes4. c8) d4( f8 ees c4) s \bar "||" \grace f,32 d'4.( c16 bes) bes8( a) ~ a16( c bes a) c8( bes) ~ bes16( d bes g) g( f e f e f g ees) ees( d cis d g f e f) c'!( bes a bes a bes) bes( c) cis( d ees d f d f ees) cis4 \bar "||" } }

Such florid passages are essential to Variations, and the last of these examples is taken from the finest set of variations existing.

For Florid Counterpoint see p. 408b.

[ G. ]

FLORILEGIUM PORTENSE. A collection of sacred vocal music of the 16th century, in separate parts, published in 2 vols. by Bodenschatz in 1618 and 21, and containing in all 265 pieces. [Bodenschatz.]

FLOTOW, Friedrich, Freiherr von, German opera composer, born April 27, 1812, son of a landed nobleman of the arch-duchy of Mecklenburg; was educated with a view to the diplomatic service. In 1827 he went to Paris, when music was at its best. The brilliant artistic life into which he was thrown aroused him to a consciousness of his own talent for music, and he devoted himself to a course of study under Reicha. The Revolution of 1830 drove him away for a time, but feeling that the atmosphere of Paris was necessary to his success, he soon returned, and produced his first dramatic attempts at the private houses of some of the aristocracy. 'Stradella' was brought out at the Palais Royal as a short piece lyrique in 1837; but Flotow's first public success was at the Théâtre de la Renaissance, where he produced, May 31, 1839, 'Le Naufrage de la Médusa,' which ran for 53 nights in 12 months, and at once established his position. He afterwards re-wrote the piece, and produced it at Hamburg in 1845 as 'Die Matrosen,' whence it spread to the other theatres of Germany. Meantime he had composed for the Paris theatres several other operas, such as 'L'esclave de Camoëns' (1843), and 'L'âme en peine' (1846), known in London as 'Leoline' (Princess's Theatre, Oct. 16, 1848). 'Stradella' was re-written as an opera, and brought out at Hamburg, Dec. 30, 44, and has had extraordinary success throughout Germany. In Paris, though published, it has never been produced. In London it was brought out in English at Drury Lane, June 6, 46—a dead failure—and in Italian