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longer series extending only partly across the fingerboard. The personal peculiarity of the hand or touch finally modifies the adaptation of the frets.

Narrow slips of wood are generally glued up the sides of the fingerboard to prevent the frets projecting. The convex fingerboards of bow instruments requiring convex frets, fretted viols had catgut bound round the fingerboard and neck at the stopping distances. Hence the German 'Bunde'—binds. (See the cut of Gamba.) The French 'ton' indicates the note produced; the Italian 'tasto' the touch producing it. The English 'fret' perhaps implies the rubbing or friction of the string at the point of contact, but the derivation of the word is doubtful. Some take the original meaning of 'fret' to have been a note, and thence the stop by which the note was produced. Shakspeare puns upon the word in Hamlet, 'though you can fret me you cannot play upon me.' The writer has been much assisted by the exhaustive article of Herr Max Albert on 'Bunde' in Mendel's 'Lexicon.'

[ A. J. H. ]

FREZZOLINI, Erminia, was born at Orvieto in 1818; received her first lessons in singing from her father, a buffo cantante; and afterwards from Nuncini at Florence. She had further instruction from the elder Ronconi at Milan, and from Manuel Garcia; and completed her musical education under Tacchinardi at Florence. In this town she made her débuts in 1838, in 'Beatrice di Tenda' and in the 'Marco Visconti' of Vaccaj. She sang also in that year at Siena and Ferrara, and in 1839 at Pisa, Reggio, Perugia, and Bologna. She played 'Lucrezia Borgia' at Milan in 1840 with brilliant éclat, and then went to Vienna. Returning to Turin, she married the tenor, Poggi; but continued to be known on the stage as Frezzolini. In 1842 (not 1841, as stated by Fétis) she came with her husband to London, during Grisi's temporary absence, but did not succeed in seizing the popular sympathy. 'She was an elegant, tall woman, born with a lovely voice, and bred into great vocal skill (of a certain order); but she was the first who arrived of the "young Italians"—of those who fancy that driving the voice to its extremities can stand in the stead of passion. But she was, nevertheless, a real singer; and her art stood her in stead for some years after nature broke down. When she had left her scarce a note of her rich and real soprano voice to scream with, Madame Frezzolini was still charming' (Chorley). In London, however, she never took root. She returned to Italy, and in 1848 was engaged for St. Petersburg. But the climate drove her back to Italy in two years. In 1850 she reappeared in London at Her Majesty's Theatre, and in 1853 was at Madrid. In November of that year she made her first appearance in Paris, in the 'Puritani'; but notwithstanding her stage-beauty, and her nobility of style and action, she could not achieve any success; her voice had suffered too much from wear and tear, and showed signs of fatigue. She subsequently met with the usual enthusiastic reception in America; but her career was over, and she has not been heard again in Europe. [App. p.642 "she died in Paris, Nov 5, 1884."]

[ J. M. ]

FRIBERTH, Karl, born 1736 at Wullersdorf in Lower Austria, where his father was school-master; came early to Vienna, and studied singing under Bonno and composition under Gassmann. He had a fine tenor voice, and sang at St. Stephen's, at Prince Hildburghausen's concerts, and in Italian operas at court. In 1759 he was engaged by Prince Esterhazy, and while in his service formed an intimate friendship with Haydn, in whose operas he sang. He himself wrote several librettos. In 1768 he married Maria Magdalena Spangler, a singer in the Prince's company, and removed with her in 1776 to Vienna, where he was appointed Capellmeister to the Jesuits and to the Minorites. During a visit to Italy, Pope Pius VI, 'on account of his services to music,' made him a knight of the Golden Spur—the order to which Gluck and Mozart also belonged. Friberth was an active member of the 'Tonkünstler-Societät,' and took Haydn's part warmly in the discussions there. As a composer he restricted himself almost entirely to church music. He died Aug. 6, 1816, universally respected both as a man and an artist. In the museum of the 'Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde' at Vienna, there is a portrait of him in oils, showing a fine head and expressive countenance.

[ C. F. P. ]

FRICHOT, a Frenchman, inventor of the bass-horn or ophicleide, settled in London about 1790, published there in 1800 'A complete Scale and Gamut of the Bass-horn .... invented by Mr. Frichot.' This instrument supplied a new and powerful bass for wind instruments in aid of the bassoon, which was too weak, and the serpent, which was very imperfect. It is now generally superseded by the Bombardon and Euphonium. [Ophicleide.]

[ M. C. C. ]

FRICK, or FRIKE, Philipp Joseph, born near Würzburg May 27, 1740, originally organist to the Margrave of Baden, remarkable performer on the Harmonica; travelled much from 1769, spending some years in Russia. He came to London about 1780, and played in public with brilliant success both on the pianoforte and harmonica. His health obliged him to give up the latter instrument in 1786, and he then maintained himself by teaching, until his death June 15, 1798. He published various treatises and some music, none of which is of any permanent value (see Fétis). The harmonica he used was one on Franklin's system. He tried in vain to adjust a key-board to the instrument, an attempt in which Röllig succeeded.

[ M. C. C. ]

FRITZ, Barthold, celebrated mechanician and maker of instruments, son of a miller, born near Brunswick 1697. He had no education, but found out for himself the principles of organ-building, and made in all nearly 500 organs, clavecins, and clavichords, beginning in 1721 with a clavichord of 4 octaves. The tone of all his instruments was good, especially in the bass. He died at Brunswick July 17, 1766. He pub-