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the singing of Beard rendered so extremely popular; music for Lee's tragedy 'Œdipus'; several cantatas, songs, solos for violin, [App. p.644 "violincello,"] bassoon, etc. At the time of his death he had nearly completed the composition of an Italian opera, 'Oreste e Pilade, overa la Forza dell' Amicizia.' Sir John Hawkins conjectured, from internal evidence, that Galliard made the translation of the Abbé Raguenet's 'Parallel,' published in 1709 under the title of 'A comparison between the French and Italian Musick and Operas, with Remarks,' and was the author of 'A Critical Discourse upon Operas in England, and a means proposed for their improvement,' printed at the end of that translation; whilst Dr. Burney, judging from the same evidence, was of a contrary opinion.

[ W. H. H. ]

GALLUS, Jacob, whose real name was [1]Handl, born about 1550, a native of Krain (or Carniola); Capellmeister first to Stanislas Pawlowski, Bishop of Olmutz, and afterwards to the imperial chapel at Prague, where he died much respected and bewailed July 4, 1591. He had a special privilege from the Emperor to publish his great work 'Hándl Jac. Musici operis, harmoniarum 4, 5, 6, 8, et plurium vocum' (Prague, 4 vols. 1586, 7, 90), a collection of the greatest value. Gallus wrote in the old Church tones, before the modern distinction between major and minor came into existence. His well-known motet (á 4) 'Ecce quomodo moritur Justus' (which Handel borrowed for his Funeral Anthem), is contained in the collection just named, and is also printed (with 18 others by him for 5, 6, and 8 voices) in Bodenschatz's 'Florilegium Portense.' Proske's 'Musica divina' contains 11 motets, 3 Responsoria, a Miserere, a Christus factus est, and a Te Deum, all by him.

[ F.G. ]

GALOP. A very spirited quick round dance in 2-crotchet time. The following bars from the opening of Schulhoff's Galop di bravura—now almost a classical composition—will give an idea of its rhythm:—

{ \time 2/4 \partial 8 \relative g'' { g8-> c->\fp[ e,-. f-. a-.] g[ c, d g,] e'[ c d g,] e'[ c fis d] g[ b, c e] d[ g, a d,] b'[ g a d,] g[ b d g] } }


Galops have one and sometimes two Trios, and are often written with an Introduction and Coda.

The dance is of German origin, and its old name was Hopser or Rutscher—describing the step. It appears to have received that of Galop on its introduction into France about the beginning of the century, where it soon took root.

[ G. ]

GALUPPI, Baldassare, born Oct. 18 [App. p.645 "Oct. 6"], 1706, on the island of Burano near Venice—whence he was known as Il Buranello—was first taught by his father, a barber, who played the violin at the theatre. At 16 he came to Venice, and earned his bread by organ playing. Through the intervention of Marcello he was admitted into the Conservatorio degli Incurabili, where he studied under Lotti. His first dramatic attempt, 'Gli amici rivali,' was hissed off the stage, but he was more fortunate with 'Dorinda' (1729) for which Marcello wrote the libretto. From this time his operas were performed throughout Italy. On April 8, 1762, he was appointed maestro di capella of St. Mark's and director of the Incurabili; but he shortly gave up these posts in order to go to St. Petersburg, where he had been invited by the Empress Catherine II. Having first improved the orchestra, no easy task, he produced his 'Didone abbandonata' with extraordinary success. He returned in 1768 to Venice, where Dr. Burney found him in 1770 prosperous and respected, and maestro of the Incurabili. Burney speaks of his 'fire and imagination,' and of the 'novelty, spirit, and delicacy' of his music. (Present State, 155, 174, 184.) His fecundity must have been remarkable; Fétis gives a list of 54 operas, 5 of which were written in one year. Though written with taste, and never overloaded, none of them have survived the Revolution of Rossini, fatal to so many of Galuppi's contemporaries. The autograph of the opera 'Il vilano Geloso,' which he composed conjointly with Gassmann, Marcello, Scarlatti, Franchi, Sacchini, Monfe, and Venti, is now in Vienna; also a grand 'Credo,' 'Gloria,' and other church works. His church works are still occasionally performed in Venice. He also wrote for the Harpsichord, and a sonata of his of great beauty is printed in the 'Alte Clavier musik' of Pauer. He died Jan. 3, 1785 [App. 645 "1784"].

[ F. G. ]

GAMBA, VIOLA DA (gamba, Ital. for leg),

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—a knee-violin, as distinguished from viola da braccio (braccio, Ital. for arm), or the viola to be played on the arm—is an obsolete stringed

  1. The sobriquet of 'Gallus' is a pun on Handl, as if Hahn. Another of his name was called Le Cocq.