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this up by a residence in Paris, where he was much esteemed as a teacher and player. Since then he has been successively at Saarbruck (1861); Cologne, as Professor of Pianoforte, Counterpoint, and Fugue (1865); Rotterdam, as conductor of the ' Eruditio Musica,' and of the Theatre (1874). His works consist of a Symphony, an Overture, a P.F. Concerto, 3 String Quartets, 3 P.F. ditto, several small works for Chorus and Orchestra, Songs, etc. His name is now well known in England, his trio for P.F. and Strings in F (op. 28) having been repeatedly given at the Popular Concerts, and a Quartet for ditto (op. 6) once, and other works at Chas. Halle's and other concerts. [App. p.646 "Add to list of works a symphony in G minor, and a cantata 'Salamis,' op. 13, which has recently been published by Novello & Co. with English words."]

[ G. ]

GESELLSCHAFT DER MUSIKFREUNDE at Vienna. This institution, now of world-wide celebrity, was suggested in 1812, and founded in 1813, mainly through Dr. Joseph von Sonnleithner, after two great performances of Handel's 'Alexander's Feast,' by all the first artists of Vienna, in the Imperial Riding-school, on Nov. 29 and Dec. 3, 1812. In 1814 the statutes received the Imperial sanction, a president (Count Apponyi) and board of directors were appointed, the formation of a musical library and museum decided upon, and four annual subscription-concerts announced. These took place in the Redoutensaal—the first (Dec. 3, 1815) in the Small Hall, the others in the large one. The 'Musik-feste' (oratorios only, with 1000 performers) were repeated in the Riding-school every year until 1847, when Mendelssohn would have conducted his 'Elijah,' but for his death a few days before the date fixed for the performance. Since 1859 two extra concerts have been given every year, besides the original four. For some years past the number of performers has been about 80 in the orchestra, and 300 to 350 in the chorus; the latter form the 'Singverein,' founded in 1858. The 'Orchesterverein,' established in 1860, gives a few soirées annually. Soirées, with miscellaneous programmes, were held regularly from 1818 to 1840. At the four general concerts all masters worthy of note have been and are still represented. Beethoven himself was invited to write an oratorio for the Society, but was unfortunately at the time too busy with other works (the Mass in D, etc.) to comply with the request. The Society has twice had a well-known patron of music at its head—the Archduke and Cardinal Archbishop Rudolf from 1814 to 1831, and the Archduke Anton from 1831 to 1835. Down to 1848 the concerts were conducted by the best musicians among the members in turn; but in 1851 Hellmesberger was appointed as professional conductor. His successors were—Herbeck in 1859, Rubinstein in 1871, Brahms in 1873, and Herbeck again in 1875. Herbeck died Oct. 28, 1877, and Hellmesberger is discharging the duties of the office in the interim (1878). The formation of the 'Singverein' under Herbeck added greatly to the interest of the concerts. Besides such works as Beethoven's Mass in D, and Bach's Passion-music (both St. Matthew and St. John) several of Schubert's works—'Der häusliche Krieg,' 'Lazarus,' the B-minor Symphony, etc.—have been produced.

The possessions of the Society in works of art have gradually increased, and are now of enormous extent. The library, the foundation of which was formed by Gerber's valuable collection, acquired in 1819, now contains nearly 4000 printed vols. and about 40,000 numbers of music, printed or manuscript. [Gerber.] Among the latter are many valuable autographs and literary curiosities, including Mozart's P.F. concerto in D minor, a quintet (1768), his last cantata (Nov. 1791); Schubert's 9th Symphony, Masses in A flat and G, the opera 'Alfons und Estrella,' the Singspiele 'die Zwillingsbrüder,' and 'der vierjährige Posten,' 4 stringed quatuors, and many songs; Haydn's 'Ten Commandments,' Mass in B flat, a great cantata (1768), six stringed quatuors (1771); Beethoven's first violin concerto (a fragment), many songs, the sonata op. 81 (first part), a quantity of sketches, the Eroica (a copy, revised by Beethoven); choruses by Gluck and Handel, and other treasures. The museum includes a large collection of pictures and engravings of celebrated musicians, and a collection of ancient musical instruments, medals, busts, etc. In 1830 the Society built a house of its own (Tuchlauben), but having far outgrown the accommodation there, removed in 1870 to the present large building 'an der Wien,' where the concerts are now held.

The 'Conservatorium,' founded by the Society in 1817, and still in connection with it, has grown to great importance from very small beginnings. It includes instruction in every branch which a pupil can possibly require. In 1870 an opera school was opened, which holds operatic performances. To this was added in 1874 a dramatic school, which gives theatrical representations. At present (1878) the Institution is attended by over 700 pupils, who receive instruction from 56 professors. Hellmesberger was appointed professional director in 1851, and has continued at the post ever since. Amongst the innumerable artists who have been educated there we may mention Ernst, Joachim, Goldmark, Staudigl, and Hans Richter, as representatives of a number too large for our space.

[ C. F. P. ]

GEVAËRT, François Auguste, Director of the Brussels Conservatoire, born July 31, 1828, at Huysse, a village near Oudenarde. His father, a baker, wished to bring him up to his own trade, but his great musical ability becoming apparent, he was sent in 1841 to the Conservatoire at Ghent, where he studied under Sommère and Mengal. He was then appointed organist of the Jesuits' Church, and in 1846 a Christmas cantata of his composition was performed in Ghent. In June 1847 his Psalm 'Super flumina' was performed at the festival of the 'Zangverband'; and Spohr, who was present, congratulated the young composer. In the May previous he had won the first prize for composition at the national competition in Brussels, but was allowed to postpone his foreign tour for two years, during which he produced in Ghent his first opera,