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home, with visits to Cologne and Leipsic, where his music has been frequently played with success.

His published and unpublished works (of which a list is given by Fétis and Pougin) extend to op. 56, containing more than 170 numbers, many of them of large dimensions. They comprise 6 Symphonies for full orchestra; 2 Concert overtures; String quartets and a quintet; 5 P.F. trios and one ditto Quintet; 18 Serenades for P.F. solo; Sonatas for ditto; choruses, songs, and other pieces in large numbers. His music appears to be much relished in Paris, and to be esteemed even in Germany. In England, however, it is not at all known.

[ G. ]

GOW, Neil, [App. p.819 "first name should be spelt 'Niel' (on the authority of J. Cuthbert Hadden, Esq.)"] was born at Strathband, Perthshire, in 1727 [App. p.653 "March 22"], of humble parents. At a very early age he showed a taste for music, and at nine began to play the violin. He was self-instructed until the age of thirteen, when he received some lessons from John Cameron, a retainer of Sir George Stewart, of Grandtully. He became distinguished by his performance of Scotch tunes, particularly strathspeys and reels, in which he has probably never been excelled or equalled. His fame soon reached London, and his assistance was long sought at fashionable balls and assemblies. He had an uncommonly powerful bow hand, particularly in the up stroke. He was ably supported by his brother, Donald, on the violoncello. Gow died at Inver, near Dunkeld, in 1807 [App. p.653 "March 1"]. He published several collections of Scotch tunes, including many of his own composition. He had four sons, all excellent violinists in the same style as their father. The eldest, Nathaniel, published 'The Beauties of Neil Gow,' in six books, and several other collections of Scotch melodies. [App. p.653 "Nathaniel Gow, born at Inver, May 28, 1766, died in Edinburgh, Jan. 19, 1831, wrote the song 'Caller Herrin'.' He held a position in the fashionable world of Edinburgh similar to that held by his father, and in his later years had received a pension from George IV. His brother, Neil, composed the songs 'Flora Macdonald's Lament' and 'Bonnie Prince Charlie.'"]

[ W. H. H. ]

GRACE NOTES, or GRACES, the English name for the ornaments in vocal and instrumental music—appoggiaturas, acciaccaturas, mordents, turns, shakes, and many more—which are treated of in this work under the general head of Agrémens, as well as under their own separate names.

[ G. ]

GRADUAL (Lat. Graduale; from gradus, a step). A short anthem sung at High Mass, between the Epistle and Gospel for the day.

In the early ages of the Church, the Gradual was chaunted, by the Deacon, from the steps of a primitive species of reading-desk, called the Ambo, or Ἀμβον; from which steps this portion of the Service derives its peculiarly characteristic name. It is now sung by the Choir: the first clause, by two Cantors only; the remainder, in full chorus. On Sundays, and Festivals, it is usually supplemented by the Alleluia and Versus. During the Seasons of Septuagesima, and Lent, and on some few other occasions, these are omitted, and the Gradual, properly so called, is sung alone. On the Sundays after Easter, the Gradual itself is omitted, and the Alleluia, and Versus, are sung alone. Special forms of both are appointed, for daily use throughout the ecclesiastical year. The words are taken, with very few exceptions, from the Book of Psalms: and the Plain Chaunt melodies to which they are invariably sung form part of the volume called the Graduale Romanum, to which the reader must be referred for their general style. Before the 9th century, the Gradual proper was repeated, in full, after the Alleluia, and Versus.

The so-called 'Graduals' of Haydn, Mozart, and some other modern composers, are Graduals in name only; and will be more properly discussed in the article Motet.

[ W. S. R. ]

GRADUAL, THE ROMAN (Lat. Graduate Romanum; Old Eng. Grayle). A well-known volume of Ritual Music, containing a complete collection of the Plain Chaunt melodies appointed to be sung at High Mass throughout the year. The first idea of the Graduale Romanum, as well as that of its sister volume, the Vesperale, was undoubtedly suggested by the treasury of antient music, arranged, for the first time, in a systematic form, during the latter half of the 4th century, by Saint Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, whose method of chaunting exercised a lasting influence upon mediæval art, notwithstanding the neglect to which it was consigned, when, some two hundred and thirty years later, that set forth in the famous Antiphonarium of Saint Gregory the Great was brought into almost universal use. Throughout the entire Western Church, this celebrated Antiphonary was all but unanimously accepted as the norm to which all other Office Books, of like scope and intention, must, of necessity, conform. It was, indeed, well worthy of the admiration it excited; but, unhappily, the uncertain and rudimentary character of its notation led to so much misunderstanding, and consequent corruption of the musical text, that, in process of time, every Diocese of importance claimed to have its own peculiar 'Use.' Hence, we find the Paris, Sarum, York, Hereford, and innumerable other Graduals, all differing widely in their details, though always exhibiting sufficient resemblance, in their general plan, to point to a common original. Attempts were made, from time to time, to restore a purer and more uniform practice: but, until after the revision of the Liturgy, by the Council of Trent, no real progress was made in the right direction. The first decisive step was taken by Pope Gregory XIII; who, in the year 1576, commissioned Palestrina, assisted by his friend and pupil, Guidetti, to revise, and restore to its original purity, the entire system of Plain Chaunt then in common use. This gigantic task, though never fully carried out, indirectly led to the publication of other invaluable works. A splendid folio Gradual was also printed at Venice in 1579–1580, by Pet. Liechtenstein. Another very fine copy—the Editio Plantiniana—was brought out, at Antwerp, in 1599: while, in 1614–1615, the celebrated Medicæan edition, which (though not free from error) has always been regarded as the most correct hitherto given to the world, was printed, at Rome, at the express command of Pope Paul V. It is needless to say that copies of these magnificent editions have long since become exceedingly rare, and costly. One of the best