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neuburg, near Vienna; died at Vienna, March 7, 1809. Seyfried has appended his biography to the complete edition of his works (Vienna, 1826, 1837). Albrechtsberger began life as a chorister at his native town and at Melk. At the latter place he was taken notice of by the Emperor Joseph, then Crown Prince; and on a later occasion, the Emperor passing through Melk renewed the acquaintance, and invited him to apply for the post of court organist on the first vacancy. Meantime Albrechtsberger studied bard under the direction of Emmerling. After being organist for twelve years at Melk, he obtained a similar post at Raab in Hungary, and then at Mariataferl. Here he remained instructor in the family of a Silesian count till he left for Vienna as Regens Chori to the Carmelites. In 1772 he was appointed court organist, and twenty years later director of music at St. Stephen's, where he at once commenced his career as a teacher. The number of his pupils was very large. Amongst the most celebrated are Beethoven, Hummel, Weigl, Seyfried, Eybler and Mosel. Nottebohm (Beethoven's 'Studien,' 1873) speaks in the highest terms of the instruction which he gave Beethoven. His compositions are computed by Seyfried as 261, of which only twenty-seven are printed. They are chiefly in possession of Prince Esterhazy Galantha. The finest is a Te Deum, which was not performed till after his death. His great theoretical work (not without defects) is entitled 'Grundliche Anweisung zur Composition,' (Leipsic, 1790; second edition 1818.) An English edition, translated by Sabilla Novello, is published by Novello, Ewer, and Co.

[ F. G. ]

ALBUMBLATT (Germ. ; Fr. Feuillet d' album). A short piece of music, such as might suitably be written in a musical album. Its form entirely depends upon the taste and fancy of the composer. As good examples of this class of piece may be named Schumann's 'Albumblätter,' op. 124, a collection of twenty short movements in the most varied styles.

[ E. P. ]

ALCESTE, tragic opera in three acts by Gluck, libretto by Calzabigi; first performed at Vienna Dec. 16, 1767, and in Paris (adapted by du Rollet) April 23, 1776. It was the first in which Gluck attempted his new and revolutionary style, and contains the famous 'Epître dédicatoire' expounding his principles. 'Alceste' was revived at Paris in 1861 by Mme. Pauline Viardot.

ALCOCK, John, Mus. Doc. Born at London, April 11, 1715, became at seven years of age a chorister of St. Paul's Cathedral under Charles King. At fourteen he became a pupil of Stanley, the blind organist, who was then, although but sixteen, organist of two London churches, All-hallows, Bread-street, and St. Andrew's, Holborn. In 1738 [App. p.520 "1737"] Alcock became organist of St. Andrew's Church, Plymouth, which place he quitted in 1742, on being chosen organist of St. Lawrence's Church, Reading. In 1749 he was appointed organist, master of the choristers, and lay vicar of Lichfield Cathedral. On June 6, 1755, he took the degree of bachelor of music at Oxford, and in 1761 proceeded to that of doctor. In 1760 he resigned the appointments of organist and master of the choristers of Lichfield, retaining only that of lay vicar. [App. p.520 adds "he held the post of organist of Sutton Coldfield church (1761–1786), and of the parish church of Tamworth (1766–1790."] He died at Lichfield in March [App. p.520 "February"], 1806, aged 91. During his residence at Plymouth, Alcock published 'Six Suites of Lessons for the Harpsichord' and 'Twelve Songs,' and whilst at Reading he published 'Six Concertos,' and a collection of 'Psalms, Hymns, and Anthems.' In 1753 he published a 'Morning and Evening Service in E minor.' He likewise issued (in 1771) a volume containing 'Twenty-six Anthems,' a 'Burial Service,' etc. He was the composer of a number of glees, a collection of which, under the title of 'Harmonia Festi,' he published about 1790. His glee, 'Hail, ever pleasing Solitude,' gained a prize medal at the Catch Club in the year 1770. Alcock edited a collection of Psalm Tunes, by various authors, arranged for four voices, under the title of 'The Harmony of Sion.' He was also author of a novel entitled ' The Life of Miss Fanny Brown.' His son John, Mus. Bac., born 1739, organist of Preston, composed a few anthems between 1773 and 1776, and died 1791.

[ W. H. H. ]

ALCHYMIST, DER, Spohr's eighth opera; libretto by Pfeifier on a Spanish tale of Washington Irving's; composed between Oct. 1829 and April 1830, and first performed at Cassel on July 28, 1830, the birthday of the Elector.

ALDAY, a family of musicians in France. The father, born at Perpignan, 1737, was a mandoline player, and the two sons violinists. The elder of the two, born 1763, appeared at the Concerts Spirituels, first as a mandoline player, and afterwards as a violinist. His works are numerous, and include a 'Methode de Violon,' which reached several editions. Alday le jeune, born 1764, a pupil of Viotti, was a finer player than his brother, and achieved a great reputation. He played often at the Concerts Spirituels up to 1791, when he came to England, and in 1806 was conductor and teacher of music in Edinburgh. He published three concertos for violin, three sets of duos, airs variés, and trios, all written in a light pleasing style, and very popular in their day, though now forgotten.

[ M. C. C. ]

ALDOVRANDINI, Giuseppe Antonio Vincenzo, born at Bologna about 1665; member of the Philharmonic Academy at Bologna (1695), and conductor of the Duke of Mantua's band; studied under Jacopo Perti. He composed eleven operas (1696-1711)—of which 'Amor torna in cinque et cinquanta,' in the Bologna dialect, was perhaps the most famous—also 'Armonia Sacra' (Bologna, 1701), a collection of motetts, the oratorio 'San Sigismondo' (Bologna, 1704), and other music, sacred and instrumental.

[ M. C. C. ]

ALDRICH, Henry, D.D., was born in 1647, and educated at Westminster School. In due course he passed to Christ Church, Oxford, of which foundation he was afterwards so distinguished a member. He was admitted a student in 1662, and took his degree as Master of Arts in 1669. He then took holy orders, and