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was elected to the living of Wem, in Shropshire, but continued to reside in his college and became eminent as a tutor. In February 1681 he was installed a Canon of Christ Church, and in May following he took his degrees as Bachelor and Doctor in Divinity. In 1689 he was installed Dean of Christ Church. He was as remarkable for the zeal with which he discharged the duties of his station as for the urbanity of his manners. His college was his first consideration, and he sought by every means to extend its resources and uphold its reputation. He closed his career Dec. 14, 1710.

Dr. Aldrich was a man of considerable attainments, a good scholar, architect, and musician. He wrote a compendium of logic, which is still used at Oxford, and a number of tracts upon theology, the classics, etc., the titles of which may be seen in Kippis (Biog. Brit.). He was also one of the editors of Clarendon's History of the Rebellion. Of his skill in architecture Oxford possesses many specimens; amongst others Peckwater quadrangle at Christ Church, the chapel of Trinity College, and All Saints' church. He cultivated music with ardour and success. 'As dean of a college and a cathedral he regarded it as a duty, as it undoubtedly was in his case a pleasure, to advance the study and progress of church music. His choir was well appointed, and every vicar, clerical as well as lay, gave his daily and efficient aid in it. He contributed also largely to its stock of sacred music; and some of his services and anthems, being preserved in the collections of Boyce and Arnold, are known and sung in every cathedral in the kingdom.' He formed a large musical library, in which the works of the Italian composers, particularly of Palestrina and Carissimi, are prominent features. This he bequeathed to his college, and it is to be regretted that a catalogue has not been printed. Catch-singing was much in fashion in the Dean's time; nor did he himself disdain to contribute his quota towards the stock of social harmony. His catch, 'Hark the Bonny Christ Church Bells,' in which he has made himself and his college the subject of merriment, is well known. He afterwards wrote and used to sing a Greek version of this catch. He was an inveterate smoker, and another of his catches in praise of smoking is so constructed as to allow every singer time for his puff.

Dr. Aldrich's compositions and adaptations for the church are 'A Morning and Evening Service in G' (printed by Boyce); 'A Morning and Evening Service in A' (printed by Arnold); and about fifty anthems, some original, others adaptations from the Italian. Some of these are to be found in the printed collections of Boyce, Arnold, and Page; others in the Ely, the Tudway, and the Christ Church MSS. (Hawkins, History; Biog. Dict. U.K.S.; Hayes, Remarks on Avison, etc.).

[ E. F. R. ]

ALESSANDRO, Romano, surnamed della Viola from his skill on that instrument, lived in the latter half of the 16th century. In 1560 he was admitted into the choir of the Pope's chapel at Rome. He composed music for his own and other instruments, as well as motetts and songs, among which are a set of 'Canzoni alia Napoletana' for five voices. The MSS. of some of these works are to be seen in the Royal Library at Munich.

[ E. H. D. ]

ALEXANDER BALUS. The thirteenth of Handel's oratorios; composed next after 'Judas Maccabæus.' Words by Dr. Morell, who ought to have known better than write Balus for Balas. First performance, Covent Garden, March 9, 1748. Dates on autograph:—begun June 1, 1747; end of second part, fully scored, June 24, do.; end of third part, fully scored, July 4, do.

ALEXANDER, Johann (or, according to Fétis, Joseph), violoncellist, lived at Duisburg at the end of the last and beginning of the present century. He was distinguished more for the beauty of his tone and the excellence of his style than for any great command over technical difficulties. He wrote a good instruction book for his instrument, 'Anweisung für das Violoncell,' Breitkopf and Härtel, 1801; also variations, potpourris, etc.

[ T. P. H. ]

ALEXANDER'S FEAST. An 'ode' of Handel's to Dryden's words, as arranged and added to by Newburgh Hamilton. Dates on autograph:—end of first part, Jan. 5, 1736; end of second part, Jan. 12, do.; end of Hamilton's additions, Jan. 17, do. First performance, Covent Garden, Feb. 19, do. Re-scored by Mozart for Van Swieten, July, 1790.

ALEXANDRE ORGAN. See American Organ.

AL FINE (Ital.). 'To the end.' This term indicates the repetition of the first part of a movement either from the beginning (da capo) or from a sign Dal segno.png (dal segno) to the place where the word fine stands. Frequently instead of the word fine the end of the piece is shown by a double-bar with a pause above it, thus

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \override Score.Clef #'stencil = ##f \time 4/4 \partial 4 { s4 \mark \markup { \musicglyph #"scripts.ufermata" } \bar "||" s4 } }


ALFONSO UND ESTRELLA. An opera by Schubert, in three acts; libretto by F. von Schober. Dates on autograph (Musikverein, Vienna):—end of first act, Sept. 20, 1821; end of second act, Oct. 20, 1821; end of third act, Feb. 27, 1822; overture (MS. with Spina), Dec. 1823. First performed at Weimar, June 24, 1854. This overture was played as the prelude to 'Rosamunde' in Dec. 1823, and encored. The opera remains in MS. except the overture (Spina, 1867) and a bass cavatina and tenor air (both Diabelli, 1832).

ALFORD, John, a lutenist in London in the 16th century. He published there in 1568, a translation of Adrien Le Roy's work on the lute (see Le Roy) under the title of 'A Briefe and Easye Instruction to learne the tableture, to conduct and dispose the hande unto the Lute. Englished by J. A.,' with a cut of the lute.

[ W. H. H. ]