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nos. 8 and 11), comes to the conclusion that the letters were not written in any year from 1800 to 1803 inclusive, and that the Countess Guicciardi was not the object of them[1]. Beethoven however had been deeply in love with her, and believed that his passion was returned. At least such was his impression in Feb. 1823, when he wrote in a conversation-book preserved in the Berlin Library, 'J'etois bien aimé d'elle et plus que jamais son epoux.' A few lines further on he states that he had seen her again after her marriage—'main je la meprisois.'

[ G. ]

GUIDETTI, Giovanni, born at Bologna in 1532; according to Baini came to Rome, and was a pupil of Palestrina. Palestrina being commissioned by Gregory XIII to revise the services of the Roman Church, associated his pupil with him in the task, as having an intimate knowledge of the MSS. both in St. Peter's and in the other principal churches of Rome. Thus the real labour of the work, which he himself styles 'opus nullius ingenii, multarum tamen vigiliarum,' fell upon him. It was begun in 1576, and occupied him till 1581. The work was published in 1582 'Directorium chori … Opera Joannis Guidetti Bononiensis,' etc., and Guidetti had the right of sale for ten years. His preface makes the respective shares of the labour of himself and Palestrina clear. He had the drudgery, while Palestrina had the final revision and completion of all portions requiring it. It is quite consistent with Palestrina' s character that he should have thus given Guidetti his full credit. The 'Directorium' went through many subsequent editions down to 1737, and was succeeded by 'Cantus ecclesiasticus passionis,' etc. (1586); 'Cantus ecclesiasticus officii majoris,' etc. (1587); and 'Praefationes in cantu firmo,' etc. (1588), all published in Rome. The aim of these works was to revive Gregorian singing in its pristine purity, and free it from the arbitrary additions and alterations then in vogue. Guidetti was a priest, and died at Rome Nov. 30, 1592.

[ F. G. ]

GUIGNON, Jean-Pierre, the last man who bore the title of 'Roi des violons.' Born at Turin in 1702, he was still very young when he went to Paris and began to study the violoncello, which however he soon exchanged for the violin. He is said to have excelled by a fine tone and great facility of bowing, and to have been a formidable rival of Leclair. In 1733 he entered the King's service, was appointed musical instructor of the Dauphin, and obtained the revival in his favour of the antique title of 'Roi des violons et ménétriers.' He further endeavoured to revive certain obsolete regulations by which all professional musicians in France were compelled to become members of the guild of minstrels (confrérie des ménétriers) on payment of a fee to him. This however raised universal opposition; and the case was brought before the Parlement, and decided against him. On this Guignon dropped his unprofitable title and retired from public life. He published several books of Concertos, Sonatas, and Duos.

[ P. D. ]

GUILLAUME TELL. Rossini's 37th and last opera; in 4 acts, libretto by Bis and Jouy. Produced at the Académie Aug. 3, 1829; in London, in English, as 'Hofer the Tell of the Tyrol,' 'arranged' by Bishop, words by Planché, Drury Lane, May 1, 1830, and as Guillaume Tell at the same house, Dec. 3, 38; in Italian, as Guglielmo Tell at Her Majesty's, July 11, 39. It is usually much curtailed, but in 1856 was performed entire in Paris, and lasted from 7 till 1.

GUILMANT, Felix Alexandre, son of an organist of Boulogne, and born there March 12, 1837. He took to the organ at an early age, and before he was sixteen was made organist of S. Joseph, in 1857 Maître de Chapelle of S. Nicolas, and shortly after professor of solfeggio in the local Ecole communale. In 1860 he became for some months a pupil of Lemmens, who heard him play and was struck by his ability. In 1871 he removed from Boulogne to Paris, and was appointed organist of the church of the Trinity, a post which he still fills. He is one of the leading organ players of France, and has considerable extempore power. For his instrument he has published a sonata and two collections of arrangements—'Pièces de différents styles,' and 'L'Organiste pratique'; also various masses, motets, and airs, arrangements and original pieces for the harmonium. Guilmant is no stranger to England, having played at the Crystal Palace, at Sheffield, and elsewhere.

[ G. ]

GUIMBARDE. A French name, of unknown derivation, for the Jew's-Harp.

[ V. de P. ]

GUIRAUD, Ernest, son of a French musician, was born at New Orleans, June 23, 1837, brought up amongst music, and saw his first opera 'Roi David' on the stage when only 15. He then came to Europe and entered the Conservatoire, where he obtained various distinctions, ending, as his father had done before him, with the Grand Prix de Rome in 1859. His first appearance before the public was made with a one-act opera, 'Sylvie,' which he wrote while in Rome, and which was brought out at the Opéra Comique May 11, 1864. This was followed after a long interval by 'En Prison,' also in one act (Theatre Lyrique, March 5, 1869), and 'Le Kobold' (July 2, 1870). M. Guiraud served during the war, and was in the engagements of Champigny and Montretout. His other operas have been Madame Turlupin (1873), Piccolino (1876), Gretna Green, a ballet (1873). He has also composed two Suites for Orchestra, the second of which was performed at the Concerts populaires, January 28, 1872. In November 1876 M. Guiraud was chosen professor of harmony and accompaniment at the Conservatoire, in room of Baptiste, deceased.

[ G. ]

[App. p.661 "GUIRAUD, Ernest, has taken a more prominent place in France since the notice of him in vol. i. was written. In July 1878 he was decorated with the Legion of Honour, and in 1880 he was appointed professor of advanced composition at the Conservatoire, replacing Victor Massé, elected honorary professor. In 1879 his 'Piccolino' was given by Carl Rosa at Her Majesty's Theatre in London. A new opera in three acts, entitled 'Galante Aventure,' failed at the Opéra Comique (March 23, 1882); but he has always retained an honourable position in concerts, where he has produced selections from an unpublished opera, 'Le Feu' (Concerts du Châtelet, March 9, 1879, and Nov. 7, 1880), an overture, 'Arteveld' (do. Jan. 15, 1882), a caprice for violin and orchestra, played by Sarasate (do. April 6, 1884), an orchestral suite in four movements (do. Dec. 27, 1885), and lastly a 'Chasse Fantastique,' suggested by a passage in Victor Hugo's 'Beau Pécopin' (Concerts Lamoureux, Feb. 6, 1887). All these works are worth hearing, and are cleverly written for a composer who, though thoroughly familiar with his materials, yet lacks inventive genius, and who as a professor shows an eclecticism and a judicious moderation worthy of all commendation. In art genius is not given to every one, and those who have only talent are to be praised for not prosecuting virulent attacks upon innovators more richly gifted than themselves."]

[ A. J. ]

GUITAR (Fr. Guitare, obsolete Guiterne; Ital. Chitarra; Germ. Guitarre, obsolete Gittern, Ghittern, and Gythorn; Span. Guitarra).

The Spanish guitar is the most generally

  1. If Beethoven had mistaken the day of the month, 1806 might be the year.