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which might have seasoned the nectar of the gods.' (Carlyle.) He sang, composed, criticised, taught, conducted, managed theatres, wrote both poetry and prose, painted all equally well; and in fact could, and did, turn his hand to anything. The list of his works is extraordinary—11 operas (MSS. in the Berlin Library), one of them ran for 14 nights; Incidental music for 3 plays; a ballet; a requiem; two symphonies, etc. etc.

Beethoven took the unusually spontaneous step of addressing him a letter (March 23, 1820). This probably led to a closer acquaintance, to judge from the Canon in his letter to the 'Cäcilia' (Nohl, No. 328)—

{\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 3/4 \relative c'' { c4 g2 e'4 c2 R2. a4 a a aes2\p f4 } \addlyrics { Hoff -- mann! Hoff -- mann! Sei ja kein Hof -- mann! } }


which it is difficult not to refer to him.

Hoffmann's devotion to Mozart led him to add Amadeus to his Christian names. Weber knew and loved him, and he died keenly regretted by many friends. Carlyle has translated his 'Goldne Topf' in 'German Romance' (vol. ii.), and gives a sketch of his life, which is also in the 'Miscellanies' (vol. iii.). His life by Rochlitz is in 'Für Freunde d. Tonkunst,' vol. i., and Hitzig's 'Aus Hoffmanns Leben,' etc. (Berlin, 1823), contains an estimate of him as a musician by A. B. Marx.

[ F. G. ]

HOFFMANN, Gerard, architect, born at Rostenberg, Nov. 11, 1690; composed sacred cantatas, and church music; is credited by Walther with certain improvements in musical instruments—an additional key to the horizontal flute, making it easier to tune (1727); an additional key to the oboe, by which the G♯ in both octaves was given much more correctly; a mechanical arrangement by which the whole four strings of the violin could be altered at once (a different pitch was then in use for secular and sacred music); a new temperament for tuning instruments (1728); and for the organ (1733); and a gauge for the strings of violins, bass-viols, lutes, and other stringed instruments.

[ M. C. C. ]

HOFFMANN, Henrich August, surnamed 'von Fallersleben ' from his birthplace in Hanover, April 2, 1798, philologist, poet, and German hymn writer; was educated at Helmstedt, Brunswick, and (under Grimm) at the University of Göttingen (1816). In 1819 he removed to Bonn, and in 1821, after studying Dutch literature in Holland, was appointed Professor at Breslau. His political views caused his dismissal in 1843, and he was not allowed to return to Prussia till 1848. Finally he became librarian to Prince Lippé at Corvey in Westphalia, and there died Jan. 19, 1874. His 'Geschichte des Deutschen Kirchenliedes' (1st ed. 1832, 2nd 1854; Rumpler, Hanover) is written in a thoroughly scientific spirit, and contains important discoveries. He edited 'Schlesische Volkslieder mit Melodien' and 'Gesellschaftslieder des 16 und 17 Jahrhunderts.' His original melodies, and above all his poems for children, are widely and deservedly popular.

[ F. G. ]

HOFFMEISTER, Franz Anton, born at Rothenburg on the Neckar, 1754; studied law at Vienna, began his musical life as a Church-Capellmeister, and in 1784 opened a book, art, and music business there. This he threw up in 1798 with the intention of going to London. He however got no farther than Leipzig, remained there, and in Dec. 1800, in conjunction with Kühnel, founded the well-known 'Bureau de Musique,' which still flourishes more than ever. [Peters.] On Jan. 2, 1805, he again relinquished his business, returned to Vienna, devoted himself to composition, and died Feb. 10, 1812. Hoffmeister was an extraordinarily prolific writer; he left 350 pieces of all dimensions for the Flute alone; 120 for Strings; Symphonies and Nocturnes for full orchestra; pieces for wind band and for clavier; songs; church music; and a large list of operas—all light and pleasing, and much relished by dilettanti. The early publications of his Firm were very coarsely engraved, as for instance Haydn's overture in D and quartet in D minor (known as op. 8), also Mozart's P.F. quartets in G minor and E♭—which promised to be the beginning of a long series, but on Hoffmann's allegation that they were too obscure for the public, Mozart cancelled the contract, though applying to Hoffmeister when in want of money shortly afterwards. The nature of Beethoven's relations with him is shown by his letters of 1800 and 1801, in which he offers his op. 19, 20, 21, 22, to his 'geliebtesten Herrn Bruder.'

[ C. F. P. ]

HOGARTH, George, born 1783, was educated for the legal profession, which he practised in Edinburgh. He studied music as an amateur, and became a violoncellist and composer. In 1815 he was joint secretary with George Farquhar Graham of the first Edinburgh Musical Festival. From 1830 he was a contributor to 'The Harmonicon.' About 1834 he settled in London, and became sub-editor and music critic of 'The Morning Chronicle.' In 1835 he published 'Musical History, Biography and Criticism' in 1 vol., enlarged in 1838 to 2 vols. In the latter year he also published 'Memoirs of the Musical Drama,' 2 vols., subsequently republished as 'Memoirs of the Opera.' Upon the establishment of 'The Daily News' in 1846, Hogarth was appointed its music critic, and held that post until 1866. In Nov. 1850 he became secretary to The Philharmonic Society, and in 1862 published 'The Philharmonic Society of London from its foundation, 1813, to its fiftieth year, 1862.' He died Feb. 12, 1870. Hogarth's compositions consist of a few songs and glees. His eldest daughter, Catherine, was married at St. Luke's, Chelsea, April 2, 1836, to Charles Dickens, who is recorded in the parish register as Charles John Huffham Dickens.

[ W. H. H. ]

[App. p.678 "HOGARTH, George, writer on musical and other subjects, was born in 1783. He studied law in Edinburgh, associating with the literary characters of the day and taking part in the musical life of the city as joint secretary to the Edinburgh Musical Festival of 1815, etc. He came to London in 1830, when he contributed articles to the 'Harmonicon,' and was engaged on the staff of the 'Morning Chronicle.' On the establishment in 1846 of the 'Daily News,' under the editorship of his son-in-law, Charles Dickens, Hogarth was at once appointed musical critic, an office which he held until his failing health obliged him to resign in 1866. Besides filling a similar post for the 'Illustrated London News,' editing for their short period of existence 'The Evening Chronicle' and 'The Musical Herald,' assisting Dickens in the compilation of 'The Household Narrative,' and contributing articles, to several periodicals, Hogarth found time to write some volumes on musical subjects, in which his judgment on contemporary art-life appears to have been sound and his mind open to the new influences at work; for his artistic instinct was sure even where his knowledge was limited. These works are 'Musical History,' etc., 1835; 'Memoirs of the Musical Drama,' 1838; a revised edition of the same, called 'Memoirs of the Opera,' 1851; 'The Birmingham Festival,' 1855; and 'The Philharmonic Society, from its foundation in 1813 to its 50th year in 1862,' a history he was well qualified to undertake, owing to his connection with the Society as secretary from 1850 to 1864. His musical compositions comprise ballads, glees, and editions of standard English songs.

Hogarth died on Feb. 12, 1870, in his 87th year.

[ L. M. M. ]

HOLBORNE, Antony and William. There was published in 1597 a work bearing the title of 'The Cittharn Schoole, by Antony Holborne, Gentleman, and seruant to her most excellent Maiestie. Hereunto are added sixe short Aers Neapolitan like to three voyces, without the In-