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Gardano, and by the successors of Baldo. Martini inserted two of his ' Agnus' in his 'Esemplare'—also reprinted by Choron, 'Principes,' vol. v. But the bulk of his compositions is probably in MS.

Of the rapidity with which he wrote some proof is afforded by an extract quoted both by Baini and Fetis from the Vatican Archives. It is an order to the Paymaster of the Chapter to pay Animuccia twenty-five scudi for fourteen hymns, four motetti, and three masses, all of which are shown in the order itself to have been composed in less than five months.

[ E. H. P. ]

ANIMUCCIA, Paolo, brother of the fore-going, but whether older or younger does not appear. Pitoni, with inaccuracy, takes upon himself to doubt the relationship altogether; but Poccianti, who was their contemporary, distinctly affirms it, speaking of Paolo as, 'Animuccia, laudatissimi Joannis frater.' He was made Maestro at the Lateran on the removal of Rubino to the Vatican in 1550, and held the poet till 1552 when he was succeeded by Lupacchini. Pitoni insists that he remained at the Lateran from 1550 to 1555; but the 'Libri Censuali' are against him. Baini, however, hints that it is possible that he may have occupied the post a second time temporarily in 1555, just before the election of Palestrina, and that this may have misled Pitoni. He died, according to Poccianti, at Borne in 1563. He has left but little printed music behind him. Two madrigals of his appear in two separate volumes, one in a book of pieces by Orlando Lasso, and the other in a miscellaneous collection of various authors, and both published by Gardano of Venice in 1559. There is a motet of his in a Collection of Motetti published at Venice in 1568; and Barrè of Milan published some of his motetti in a miscellaneous volume in 1588. According to Fétis the Library of John IV, King of Portugal, contained a collection of Paolo Animuccia's Madrigals in two books intituled 'Il Desiderio, Madrigali a cinque, Lib. 2.'

[ E. H. P. ]

ANNA AMALIA, Duchess of Saxe Weimar, born at Brunswick, Oct. 24, 1739, and learned music from the conductors of the ducal chapel at Weimar. She composed the music in Goethe's melodrama of 'Erwin und Elmire,' a notice of which will be found in the 'Teutscher Mercur,' May, 1776. The duchess was a woman of fine and noble taste, and to her countenance and support is greatly due the excellence of the music in the Weimar theatre about 1770. She died April 13, 1807.

[ F. G. ]

ANNA AMALIA, Princess of Prussia, sister of Frederic the Great, born Nov. 9, 1723, was a pupil of Kirnberger; she is the composer of a cantata by Ramler, 'Der Tod Jesu,' the same which was set to music by Graun. The princess was an able contrapuntist, and her style is full of vigour and energy, as may be seen from a portion of her cantata which is included in Kirnberger's 'Kunst des reinen Satzes.' She is also said to have played the clavier with great taste and ability. She died at Berlin, March 30, 1787.

[ F. G. ]

ANNA BOLENA, opera by Donizetti; libretto by Romani; produced at Milan in 1822 [App. p.523 "Dec. 26, 1830"], in Paris Sept. [App. p.523 "July 8"] 1831, and in London.

ANNIBALI, Domenico, an Italian sopranist at the court of Saxony; was engaged by Handel for his opera at London in the autumn of 1736, and made his debut in 'Arminio.' He appeared next in 'Poro,' introducing three songs, not by Handel, which probably he had brought with him from Italy to display his particular powers an example frequently followed since his day. He performed in the cantata 'Cecilia, volgi,' and sang the additional song, 'Sei del ciel,' interpolated by Handel between the first and second acts of 'Alexander's Feast.' In 1737 he performed the part of Justin in the same master's opera of that name, and that of Demetrio in his 'Berenice.' After that his name does not appear again.

[ J. M. ]

ANSANI, Giovanni, born at Rome about the middle of the 18th century, was one of the best tenors of Italy. In 1770 he was singing at Copenhagen. About 1780 he came to London, where he at once took the first place; but, being of a most quarrelsome temper, he threw up his engagement on account of squabbles with Roncaglia. He returned the next year with his wife, Maccherini, who did not succeed. He sang at Florence in 1784, at Rome the autumn of the same year, and elsewhere in Italy; and finally retired to Naples at the age of 50, where he devoted himself to teaching singing. He was still alive in 1815. He was a spirited actor, and had a full, finely-toned, and commanding voice. Dr. Burney says it was one of the sweetest yet most powerful tenors he ever heard; to which, according to Gervasoni, he added a very rare truth of intonation, great power of expression, and the most perfect method, both of producing the voice and of vocalisation. His wife had as bad a temper as himself, and they were, therefore, the most inharmonious couple. It is said that, when singing together in Italy, if one were more applauded than the other, the unsuccessful one would hire persons to hiss the more fortunate rival.

Ansani was known also as a composer of duets and trios for soprano and bass, with a basso-continuo. Gerber reports that an Opera of his composition, called 'La Vendetta di Minos,' was performed at Florence in 1791. The date of his death is not known.

[ J. M. ]

ANSWER. An answer in music is, in strict counterpoint, the repetition by one part or instrument of a theme proposed by another. In the following chorus from Handel's 'Utrecht Jubilate'

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 2/2 << \key f \major \relative f' { << { r1^"O go your way" | r | r | r | r | r | c'^"(d)" | } \\
{ s1 | s | s | s2 f, ~ | f e | f4 e d2 | g f | } \\
{ f1_"(a)" | g2 c, | f bes ~ | bes a | bes4 a g2 | a2 g4 f | } >> }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key f \major \relative c' << { r1 | c^"(b)" | d2 g, | c s | s1 | s | e2 f4 e | } \\ { r1 | r1 | r1 | f,_"(c)" | g2 c, | f bes | bes a | } >> } >> }