Page:A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature, Volume 1 (1903).djvu/18

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א׳

א Aleph, the first letter of the alphabet, interchanging with other gutturals, e.g. אבב, הבב, חבב, עבב; אליתא, עליתא &c.

א often used to form second roots of verbs ע״ע, e. g. אטם, טמם.

א frequ. prosthetic, e. g. אגודל, גודל, v. אִ־.

א sometimes inserted to replace a radical, as באגא=בגא, esp. in verbs ע״ו, as דָּאִיךְ‏‏ fr. דּוֹךְ‏‏, קָ‏אִים fr. קוּ‏ם &c.

א frequ. (in Talm. Y.) dropped in the beginning of words, e. g. בָּ‏‏א=אַ‏בָּ‏‏א ; מַ‏ר=אֲמַ‏ר.

א affixed to the end of Chald. nouns, corresponding to prefixed ה in Hebrew (status emphaticus), e. g. אַ‏בָּ‏‏א=הָ‏אָ‏ב.

א׳ as numeral letter, one, as אות א׳=אות אחת one letter. Sabb. 104a; a.fr. [Editions and Mss. vary, according to space, between the full numeral and the numeral letter, א׳ for אחד, אחת; ב׳ for שנים, שתים, שתי &c.]

אִ־,אִי־,אֶ־,אַ־ &c. a prefix, 1) for the formation of nouns in Kal, Peel, Afel (Hifil) &c., e. g. אִסְפְּקָא‏‏, אִיסְ‏‏׳, אַ‏פְטָרָה‏‏, אַ‏פְטַ‏רְתָּא‏‏‏‏ &c; 2) demonstrative, e. g. אִיהוּ‏=h. הַ‏הוּא‏; אִנָּ‏‏א‏‏‏‏, אִינָ‏א‏‏‏‏ &c.—3) euphonic (prosthetic) אִדְמָ‏א‏‏‏‏=דְּ‏מָ‏א‏‏‏‏; אִית‏‏‏‏=h. יֵשׁ‏‏‏‏ &c, esp. before foreign words beginning with two consonants, e. g. אִסְ‏‏‏‏טְרָטֵיגוֹס‏‏, אִיסְ׳‏‏=סְ‏‏‏‏טַ‏רְטֵיגוֹס‏‏ &c.

אַ‏־ a prefix (followed by Dagesh Forté)=עַ‏ל upon, over, e. g. אַמָּרָא‏‏‏‏=עַ‏ל מָ‏רָא‏‏‏‏; even before gutturals, e. g. אַאַבְנָא‏‏‏‏‏‏.

אָ‏אִין plur. of אל״ף q. v.

אאלר״ן, a fictitious word made up of each third letter in. מנא̇ מנא̇ תקל̇ ופר̇סין̇ (Dan. V, 25). Snh. 22a; Cant. R. to. III, ממתו״ס וכ׳ the inscription on the wall was so arranged as to form words composed of its every first, every second and every third letter respectively.

אֲאָ‏רָ‏א, v. אַ‏וָּ‏ארָ‏א.

אַ‏ב־,אֶ‏בְ־ a prefix of words of Greek origin answering to αὐ, au-, e. g. אבטומטוס=αὐτόματος; or to εὐ, e. g. אבגינוס=εὐγενής.

אָב I (Assyr. A-bu, Schr. K. A. T., p. 247) Aḅ, the fifth month of the Jewish calendar (of thirty days) beginning between the eighth of July and the seventh of August, and ending between the sixth of August and the fifth of September. R. Hash. I, 3, על אב וכ׳ for announcing the beginning of Ab messengers are sent out, for the sake of the fast. Ib. 18b ט׳ באב the ninth of Ab, anniversary of Temple destruction. Taan. IV, 6 משנכנס אב with the beginning of Ab. Ib. 29b לישתמיט מיניה באב let him try to be relieved of (the law-suit) in Ab. Meg.5b; a.e.

אָב II m. (b. h.; א‏בה, cmp. אֵם), const. אֲבִי, אַ‏ב [embracer], father, ancestor, progenitor; teacher; chief, leader; author, originator. Ex. R. s. 46 end המגדל אב the educator is the real father. Lev. R. s. 1 אבי החכמה וכ׳, the father of all wisdom, . . the father of prophets. Y. Ned. V, 39b; a. fr.—אב בית דין (abbr. אב״ד) president of the Court (Great Sanhedrin), next in dignity to the Nassi. Taan. II, 1; a. fr.—Metaph. origin, cause. Num. R. s. 10 (play on אֲבוֹ‏י, Prov. XXIII, 29) א׳ אוי the cause of woe (sin).—אב מלאכה (for which also עיקר) one of the chief labors forbidden on the Sabbath, opp. תולדה a labor the prohibition of which is based on the ground of its being a species of the former, or derived from the former. Sabb. VII, 1 sq.; a. fr.—[Y. Sabb. II, 5a, אב שלה, sub. מלאכה.]—אב הטומאה one of the original or direct causes of levitical uncleanness, opp. ולד (child) secondary cause. Toh. I, 5 ; a. fr.—א׳ הנזק v. Pl.—בנין א׳ creation of a class, i. e. a conclusion, by analogy, from a case explicitly stated in the bibl. law on all similar cases not specified in detail. Sifra introd.—Ib. K'doshim, end, ch. 11 (ref. to Lev. XX, 27) זה ב׳ א׳ לכל דמיחם בם this forms the rule for all cases in which the Bible uses the word d'mēhem bam (that the penalty is stoning to death); a. fr.; v. also בֵּ‏ית אבPl. אָ‏בוֹ‏ת־, const. אֲבוֹ‏ת, 1) fathers, ancestors, patriarchs &c. Ber. 26b prayers א׳ תקנום have been instituted by the Patriarchs; a. fr.—אבות בתי דינין, v. supra. Ḥag. II, בת א׳ a woman of noble descent. Num. R. s. 1; a. e.—Metaph. principal, chief א׳ מלאכות, v. supra. א׳ הטומא׳ Kel. I, 1; v. supra.—א׳ נזיקין (sing. אב הנזק) the chief actionable injuries or damages, from which the subordinate are deduced (תולדות). B. Kam. I, 1; a. e.—2) Aboth, the first section of the Prayer of Benedictions (v. תְּפִלָּ‏ה), so called because it alludes to the Patriarchs.