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Note I, page 123.

Armand Louis de Gontaut Bifon, Duc de Lauzun, bom 15th April, 1747, died on the scaffold 31st December, 1793. His youth was passed in dissipation, but in 1777, he startled everybody by bringing out a pamphlet on The State of Defence of England and her Possessions in all the four quarters of the World, which led to his being entrusted with the command of an expedition to destroy the English settlements on the coast of Senegal. This he successfully accomplished (January, 1779), and in 1780 he was fighting in America. He took the Revolutionary side, and received the command of the Army of the Rhine in 1792, and in 1793 was employed against the Vendeans. As a matter of course he was accused of uncitizenly conduct "and too much moderation towards the rebels," was deprived of his command, imprisoned, condemned, and executed.

Note J, page 141.

Philippe Pinel a celebrated doctor, distinguished for his knowledge of mathematics and philosophy, but best known for having introduced the humane treatment of the insane, who until that time had been treated as dan-