Page:A cyclopedia of American medical biography vol. 2.djvu/437

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SMITH


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SMITH


Harbor and Antietam. After thoroughly organizing the department of Avhich he was in charge, he resigned his commission in 1862. In 1883 he was elected presi- dent of the State Medical Society.

Dr. Smith was the author of many important medical publications, which include "An Anatomical Atlas," to illustrate William E. Horner's " Special Anatomy" (Philadelphia, 1843); "Minor Surgery" (1846); "System of Operative Surgery, with a Biographical Index to the Writings and Operations of American Surgeons for 234 Years" (2 Vols., 1852); "The Treatment of Disunited Fractures by Means of Artificial Limbs" (1855); " Professional Visit to London and Paris" (1855); "Practice of Surgery" (2 Vols., 1857-63); and numerous surgical articles in medical journals. And he translated from the French "Civiale's Treatise on the Medical and Prophylactic Treatment of Stone and Gravel" (Philadelphia, 1841); and edited the "United States Dissector" (1S44) and "Spencer Thomp- son's Domestic Medicine and Surgery" (1853). In October, 1843, he married Mary Edmunds, eldest daughter of Prof. W^illiarn E. Horner who had been his preceptor in the study of inedicine.

He died April 11, 1890.

F. R. P.

Tr. Phila. Co. Med. Soc, 1890.

Med. News., Phila., 1890.

Med. Rec, N. Y., 1890, vol. xxxvii.

A Memoir of H. H. Smith by B. Lee., Phila ,

1890.

Smith, James (1771-1841).

He was born at Elkton, Cecil County, Maryland, in 1771. He was a master of arts of Dickinson College, 1792, and a pupil of Dr. Rush. He attended the University of Pennsylvania and is thought to have graduated there in 1794. He was a founder and attending physi- cian of the Baltimore General Dispensary, 1801-1807; on March 25, 1802, he opened a private vaccine institute in Baltimore; in 1809 became state vaccine agent, and in 1813 United States vaccine agent. He held this position until 1822, when the office was abolished. He edited Vol. 11—25


"The Vaccine Inquirer," 1822, and was treasurer of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland from 1811 to 1817. He died at Pikesville, Baltimore County, Maryland, June 12, 1841.

Dr. Smith's reputation rests upon his connection with vaccination. Although not the first to introduce it into Maryland his use of it began at the Almshouse with the second supply received in Baltimore, and the date of his first case was May 1, 1801. The virus was put up for greater security in three different ways, on the blade of a lancet, or between small plates of glass, or on thread charged with it, but in any case confined in a vial well corked and .sealed. Says Dr. Smith. "The physicians of Baltimore generally were invited to inspect these cases and offers were made to furnish them with virus, but no one could be prevailed on to make any use of it beyond the walls of the alms- house during the whole summer, notwith- standing the small-pox was then prevail- ing in the city." A full account of these cases was published in the " Baltimore Telegraph." An accident cut short his activities in May, 1822.

Dr. Smith received no salary for his services as United States vaccine agent, and the expenses of the institution were met by subscriptions and donations. While he had charge he supported twenty special agents who were furnished with horses and they rendered 6750 days' services vaccinating and distributing matter gratuitously for rich and poor, and securing the lives of more than 100,000 persons. (Quinan.)

There is preserved in the archives of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty, at Baltimore, a patent for "an improve- ment in the art of vaccination," obtained Ijy Dr. Smith from the government in 1822. The "improvement" consisted in moistening the crust and grating upon it small pieces of glass or ivory, to which it would adhere when dry and might thus be transmitted by letter to remote points. Dr. Smith speaks of the crust as "a cryptogamous plant of the order of fungi." E. F. C.