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of Bháwal Khan. His death paved the way for the succession of his brother, Sádik Mahomed. But this prince had to fight for the throne with his nephews and brothers, and it was not until he had disposed of these that he felt secure in his seat.

The rule of Sádik Mahomed was mainly noticeable for his disputes with his kinsmen and the too powerful chiefs of the country. But as he, by degrees, felt his power, he shook off the suzerainty of Kandahar and asserted his independence. His son and successor, Bháwal Khan, had, however, to fear the encroachment of a new power that had risen. During the first two de— cades of the present century the overshadowing power of Ranjit Singh tilled him with dismay, and he made several applications to the British, tendering his allegiance and asking their protection. The applications were, however, declined, but the treaty made in 1809 with Ranjít Singh, referred to in the first chapter of this part, really did give him the protection he sought, as it confined Ranjít Singh to the right bank of the Satlaj.

The British subsequently (1830) entered into a com- mercial treaty with Bhiwál Khan, by which his indepen- dence within his own territories was acknowledged. The terms of this treaty, which related mainly to the tolls to be levied on the traffic passing through his terri— tories, were modified in 1835, 1838, 1540, 1843, 1547. and 1855. But it is a treaty of another sort, negotiated in 1838 to which it is necessary more particularly to refer. The Nawábs of Bhwálpur had always been de jure vassals of the lords of Kandahar and Kábul, and although the predecessor of Bháwal Khan had broken the yoke from off his neck, yet the prospect of restoring. in the person of Shah Súija, the Durani family. naturally filled him with concern. To maintain his independence the Nawáb then negotiated a treaty with the British Govern- ment (October 1838), by the terms of which he placed himself under its supremacy, and bound himself to act in