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10
[Ch. I.
NEW LAMPS FOR OLD.

We see, then, that the Universal Proposition

"All new Cakes are nice"

consists of two Propositions taken together, namely,

"Some new Cakes are nice,"

and "No new Cakes are not-nice."

In the same way

0 1

would mean "all are ", that is,

"All new Cakes are not-nice."

Now what would you make of such a Proposition as "The Cake you have given me is nice"? Is it Particular, or Universal?

"Particular, of course," you readily reply. "One single Cake is hardly worth calling 'some,' even."

No, my dear impulsive Reader, it is 'Universal'. Remember that, few as they are (and I grant you they couldn't well be fewer), they are (or rather 'it is') all that you have given me! Thus, if (leaving 'red' out of the question) I divide my Universe of Cakes into two classes——the Cakes you have given me (to which I assign the upper half of the cupboard), and those you haven't given me (which are to go below)——I find the lower half fairly full, and the upper one as nearly as possible empty. And then, when I am told to put an upright division into each half, keeping the nice Cakes to the left, and the not-nice ones to