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§ 1.]

the right, I begin by carefully collecting all the Cakes you have given me (saying to myself, from time to time, "Generous creature! How shall I ever repay such kindness?"), and piling them up in the left-hand compartment. And it doesn't take long to do it!

Here is another Universal Proposition for you. "Barzillai Beckalegg is an honest man." That means "All the Barzillai Beckaleggs, that I am now considering, are honest men." (You think I invented that name, now don't you? But I didn't. It's on a carrier's-cart, somewhere down in Cornwall.)

This kind of Universal Proposition (where the Subject is a single Thing) is called an 'Individual' Proposition.

Now let us take "nice Cakes" as the Subject of our Proposition: that is, let us fix our thoughts on the left-hand half of the cupboard, where all the Cakes have the attribute , that is, "nice."

Suppose we find it marked like this:—
What would that tell us?


I hope that it is not necessary, after explaining the horizontal oblong so fully, to spend much time over the upright one. I hope you will see, for yourself, that this means "some are ", that is,

"Some nice Cakes are new."

"But," you will say, "we have had this case before. You put a red counter into No. 5, and you told us it meant