Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/130

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xvi, 14 sq.; II Par., xxviii, 2225). On account of the king's sin Juda was also oppressed by the Edomites and the Philistines (II Par., xxviii, 17 sq.).

Renard in Vig., Dict. de la Bible (Paris, 1895); Peake in Hastings, Dict. of the Bible (New York, 1903); Hagen, Lexicon Biblicum (Paris, 1905).

Achéry, Lucas d', a French Benedictine (Maurist), born 1609 at Saint Quentin in Picardy; died in the monastery of St. Germain des Prés at Paris, 29 April, 1685. He was a profound student of medieval historical and theological materials, mostly in original manuscripts, to the collection, elucidation, and printing of which he devoted his whole life. He entered the Order of St. Benedict at an early age, was professed at the Abbey of the Blessed Trinity, Vendôme, 4 October, 1632, but his health soon obliged him to remove to Paris. He became a member (1637) of the monastery of St. Germain des Pré, and in his long sojourn of nearly fifty years scarcely ever quitted its walls. As librarian of the monastery he was soon acquainted with its rich treasures of medieval history and theology, and by a continuous correspondence with other monasteries, both in and out of France, he soon made himself a bibliographical authority of the first rank, especially in all that pertained to the unedited or forgotten writings of medieval scholars. His first important work was an edition (Paris, 1645) of the "Epistle of Barnabas", whose Greek text had been prepared for the press, before his death, by the Maurist Hugo Ménard. D'Achéry's "Asceticorum vulgo spiritualium opusculorum Indiculus" (Paris, 1645) served as a guide to his confrè, Claude Chantelou, in the preparation of the five volumes of his "Bibliotheca Patrum ascetica" (Paris, 1661). In 1648 he published all the works of Blessed Lanfrac of Canterbury (P. L., CL, 9). He published and edited for the first time the works of Abbot Guibert of Nogent (Paris, 1661) with an appendix of minor writings of an ecclesiastical character. In 1656 he edited the "Regula Solitaria" of the ninth century priest Grimlaicus (Grimlaic), a spiritual guide for hermits. His principal work, however, is the famous "Spicilegium, sive Collectio veterum aliquot scriptorum qui in Galliae bibliothecis, maxime Benedictinorum, latuerunt" (Paris, 1655–77), continued by Baluze and Martène, to whom we owe an enlarged and improved edition (Paris, 1723). D'Achéry collected the historical materials for the great work known as "Acta Ordinis S. Benedicti" but Mabillon added so much to it in the way of prefaces, notes, and "excursus" that it is justly accounted as his work. D'Achéry was the soul of the noble Maurist movement, and a type of the medieval Benedictine, humble and self-sacrificing, virtuous and learned. Despite continued illness he was foremost in all the labours of the French Benedictines of St. Maur, and was the master of many of the most illustrious among them, e.g. Mabillon. His valuable correspondence is preserved in the Bibliothéque Nationale at Paris.

Dupin, Bibliotéque des auteurs ecclés., XVIII, 1445; Tassin, Hist. litt. de la compagnie de S. Maur; Pez, Biblioth. Mauriana, I, 31; Bäumer, Mabillon (1892), 29.

Acheul, Saint. See Amiens.

Achiacharus is mentioned only once in the Vulgate version of Tobias (xi, 20, under the form Achior), but the name occurs four times in the Greek versions. He is represented as a nephew of Tobias, and an influential minister of the Assyrian King Esarhaddon (681–668 b.c.). On the relation, supposed by some critics, of this personage to Ahiakar the Wise, of eastern legend, see E. Cosquin, in Revue biblique Internationale, 1899, 50 sq.

Achimaas.— 1) Father of Achinoam, wife of Saul (1 K., xiv, 50).—(2) Son of Sadoc, the priest. He was a swiftfooted messenger in the service of David during the rebellion of Absalom. He brought from Jerusalem news of the enemy's movements, and, after the battle in which Absalom was slain, he was the first to reach the King with the news of victory. He was "a good man", according to David (II K., XV, 35, 36; xvii, 17 sq.; xviii, 19 sq.). This Achimaas is perhaps the same as one of Solomon's prefects, the governor of Nephtali, and son-in-law of the King (III K., iv, 15).

Achimelech.—(1) The priest of Nobe who extended hospitality to David during his flight from the court of Saul. For this he was put to death, together with all the priests of Nobe, except Abiathar, his son, who escaped and joined David (I K., xxi–xxii).—(2) A Hethite, companion of the outlawed David (I K., xxvi, 6).—(3) There is an Achimelech spoken of (II K., viii, 17, and I Par., xviii, 16; xxiv, 3, 6, 31), as a "son of Abiathar" and an associate of Sadoc in the priesthood. As this position is usually attributed to "Abiathar, son of Achimelech" it is thought that the reading "Achimelech, son of Abiathar" is due to an accidental transposition of the text of Kings, and that this transposition has affected the text of Paralipomenon.—(4) Name given to Achis, King of Geth, in the title of Ps. xxxiii. Some texts have Abimelech.

Achitopel was an able and honoured counsellor of David, who joined the rebellion of Absalom. The King was much affected by this desertion. Hearing that the man on whose word he had been wont to rely as "on an oracle of God" was giving his advice to the enemy, he prayed the Lord to "infatuate the counsel of Achitopel". Some have seen in Pss. liv, 13–15; xl, 10, reflections of David on this faithless friend. It was on the advice of Achitopel that Absalom took possession of his father's harem, thus cutting off all hope of reconciliation. Understanding the need of energetic measures, he urged that 12,000 men be sent from Jerusalem in pursuit of the King. He offered to lead them himself. Chusai, a secret friend of David, defeated his purpose. Thereupon he proudly withdrew to his town of Gilo, put his house in order, and strangled himself. (See II Kings, XV, 12; xvii, 23; I Par., xxvii, 33.) It would seem from a conjunction of II Kings, xxiii, 34, and xi, 3, that Achitopel was the grandfather of Bethsabee, and it has been suggested, as an explanation of his conduct towards David, that he had kept a secret grudge against the King for the way he had treated Bethsabee, and her first husband, the unfortunate Urias. This, or some motive of ambition, would be in keeping with the haughty character of Achitopel. Dryden has used this name in the title of his famous satire against the Protestant Party, "Absalom and Achitophel".

Achonry (Gaelic, Achadh-Chonnaire, Connary's Field), The Diocese of, in Ireland, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Tuam. The village of Achonry occupies a very picturesque situation in the south of the County Sligo. Here St. Finian, who died in 552, established a church and monastery on some land given him by the prince of the Clann Chonnaire. Over this he placed Nathi O'Hara, who had been his pupil in the famous school of Clonard and is always spoken of in the annals as Cruimthir-Nathi, i.e. the Priest Nathi. In a short time the monastery and its head acquired a remarkable reputation, and a diocese was formed (c. 560) of which Nathi is reputed to have been the first bishop, though he may have been only the abbot-superior, according to the Irish system of ecclesiastical organization from the