under Nabuchodonosor (see IV Kings, xxii, 12; Jer., xxvi, 24; xl, 5).
Ahriman and Ormuzd (more correctly Ormuzd and Ahriman), the modern Persian forms of Anro Mainyus and Ahura Mazda, the Evil Spirit and the Good Spirit, respectively, of the Avestic or Zoroastrian religion of the Ancient Iranians and modern Parsees. (See Avesta.)
Aiblinger, Johann Caspar, composer, b. 23 February, 1779, at Wasserburg, Bavaria; d. at Munich, 6 May, 1867. In his eleventh year he commenced his studies at Tegernsee Abbey, where he was instructed in piano and organ-playing. Four years later he entered the gymnasium at Munich, where he studied under Professor Schlett, his countryman. Thence he went (in 1800) to the University of Landshut. Inwardly drawn to the Church, he completed his philosophy and began theology, but the secularization of many religious orders in Bavaria prevented his entrance into a cloister. He now devoted himself solely to music. Led by the then prevailing idea that without a visit to Italy no musical education is complete, he turned his footsteps southward. After a stay of eight years at Vicenza, where he fell under the influence of his countryman Simon Mayr, Aiblinger (1811) went to Venice and there met Meyerbeer, who procured for him an appointment at the Conservatory. His failure to establish a school for classical music led him to Milan to assume the direction of the local ballet. On his return to Bavaria King Max I invited him to Munich to direct the Italian opera. King Ludwig appointed him director of the royal orchestra, and sent him to Italy to collect old Italian masterpieces. On his return be became the organist of the church of All Saints for which he wrote many valuable compositions. In 1864 he resigned, on account of advancing years. Between 1820 and 1830 he tried operatic composition, but was unsuccessful. A crusade against Italian music, which led to the revival of Gluck's "Iphigenia in Tauris", followed. Then he took up church music, studying the old masters and procuring performances of their works. He also wrote much church music, which is generally full of simple dignity and great purity, with a certain degree of freedom, but it is stiff, dry, and weakly sentimental. His instrumentation is not strong. He was, however, inspired with the spirit of the Church. Of his numerous compositions, comprising masses and requiems, offertories and graduals, psalms, litanies, and German hymns, many have been published at Augsburg, Munich, Ratisbon, and Mainz. His choicest works, consisting of masses, vespers, motets, etc. (133 in number), are preserved in the archives of the royal court chapel in Munich.
Kornmüller, Lex. der kirchl. Tonkunst; Grove, Dict. of Music and Musicians.
Aichinger, Gregor, organist and composer of sacred music, b. probably at Ratisbon in 1565; d. at Augsburg, 21 January, 1628. He was a priest at least towards the end of his life. As early as 1590 he was the organist to the patrician Jacob Fugger at Augsburg. He paid a visit to Rome in 1599. His musical development was largely influenced by the Venetian school, and especially by Gabrieli. In 1601, or thereabouts, he returned to Augsburg and re-entered the service of the Fuggers. Of his numerous compositions we mention "Liturgica, sive Sacra Officia ad omnes dies festos Magnæ Dei Matris", (Augsburg, 1603); "Sacræ Cantiones", for four, five, six, eight, and ten voices (Venice, 1590); "Tricinia Mariana" (Innsbruck, 1598); "Fasciculus Sacr. Harmoniarum" (Dillingen, 1606). The full list is found in Eitner's "Quellen-Lexikon." Proske thus characterizes Aichinger and his fellow-worker Hassler in the Fugger choir: "Though Hassler excelled in intellect and originality, both masters had this in common that they combined the solid features of German art with the refined forms of Italian genius, which flourished at that time especially in Rome and Venice, and had stamped their works with freer melody and more fluent harmony. Aichinger in particular distinguishes himself by a warmth and tenderness of feeling bordering on mellowness, which is everywhere imbued with deep devotion. Meanwhile he does not lack sublimity nor solemnity, indeed some of his longest compositions satisfy throughout the strictest demands of art."
Kornmüller, Lex. der kirchl. Tonkunst; Grove, Dict. of Music and Musicians; Naumann, Geschichte der Musik.
Aidan of Lindisfarne, Saint, an Irish monk who had studied under St. Senan, at Iniscathay (Scattery Island). He is placed as Bishop of Clogher by Ware and Lynch, but he resigned that see and became a monk at Iona about 630. His virtues, however, shone so resplendantly that he was selected (635) as first Bishop of Lindisfarne, and in time became apostle of Northumbria. St. Bede is lavish in praise of the episcopal rule of St. Aidan, and of his Irish co-workers in the ministry. Oswald, king of Northumbria, who had studied in Ireland, was a firm friend of St. Aidan, and did all he could for the Irish missioners until his sad death at Maserfield near Oswestry, 5 August, 642. St. Aidan died at Bamborough on the last day of August, 651, and his remains were borne to Lindisfarne. Bede tells us that "he was a pontiff inspired with a passionate love of virtue, but at the same time full of a surpassing mildness and gentleness." His feast is celebrated 31 August.
Aignan of Vienne, Saint. See Vienne.
Aiguille, Raymond d'. See Agiles.
Aiguillon, Duchess of, Marie de Vignerot de Pontcourlay, Marquise of Combalet and Duchesse d'Aiguillon, niece of Cardinal Richelieu, b. 1604; d. at Paris, 1675. First promised to Comte de Bethune, son of Sully, she married Antoine de Route, Marquis of Combalet, in 1620, who was killed two years later at the siege of Montpellier. A childless widow, she entered the Carmelite convent in Paris, fully determined to end her days there; but after Richelieu became premier of Louis XIII she had to follow him, and was appointed lady of the bed-chamber to Marie de Médicis. Obliged to do the honors of the Cardinal's palace, she took into her hands the distribution "of his liberality and of his alms", to use Fléchier's expressions. Convinced of the vanity of worldly honors, she only busied herself in distributing riches without seeking any enjoyment from wealth. She well deserved, by her virtues and piety, the title of "great Christian" and "heroic woman", which her panegyrists give to her. Charity was her dominant virtue. She had part in all the beneficence of her times. She founded, endowed, or enriched especially the establishments of foreign missions in Paris and in Rome; the church and seminary of Saint Sulpice; the hospitals of Marseilles and of Algiers; the convent of the Carmelites; the Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul, and all the religious houses of Paris. She gave fifty thousand francs for the foundation of a general hospital in Paris, which she first established at La Salpêtrière. Patron of St. Vincent de Paul, she was the soul of charitable assemblies, of evangelical missions, and of the greater part of the institutions created by that saint. She gave him the funds needed to found the College des Bons-Enfants. Her charity extended to the missions of China and she defrayed the expenses of sending the first bishops there. But it was above all