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the Duke of York and Albany, afterwards James II, all the land lying between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers. Before the transfer Catholics were few. Two Portuguese sailors at Fort Orange in 1626, a Portuguese woman, and a transient Irishman, met by Father Jogues in 1643, made up the quota. After the English possession there is credible evidence that several Catholics from the Netherlands settled in Albany in 1677, for whom the Franciscan Father Hennepin provided. In 1682 came Colonel Thomas Dongan as governor, the son of an Irish baronet, afterwards the Earl of Limerick. The project of detaching the Five Nations from the French, who had won them by the disinterested labours of their missionaries, suggested the scheme of colonizing them at Saratoga under English Jesuit influence, to counteract a similar colonization enterprise at La Prairie under French auspices. The Jesuits, Thomas Harvey, Henry Harrison, Charles Gage, and two lay-brothers were the pathfinders under the new regime.

American Period.—In 1790 John Carroll was consecrated Bishop of Baltimore, and Albany passed over to his jurisdiction from that of the archbishops of Rouen and the archbishops of Quebec. Saint Mary's, the first church in the diocese, and for many years the only Catholic church between St. Peter's, Barclay street, New York City, and Detroit, was built in 1797 during the episcopate of John Carroll. Because of its isolation, its corner stone was laid by one of its trustees, Thomas Barry. The earlier priests during this Baltimore era were Fathers Thayer, Whelan, O'Brien, D. Mahoney, James Buyshe, and Hurley. The laymen of mark were James Roubichaux, Louis Le Coulteaux, David McEvers, Thomas Barry, William Duffy, and Daniel Cassidy. On the same day of the year 1808, Baltimore was elevated to the rank of an archdiocese, and three new sees were created: New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. The new Bishop of New York assumed jurisdiction over the entire State, and Albany heard the voice of a new shepherd. From this year to the year of its erection as a diocese (23 April, 1847) there was a steady growth of Catholics, sluggish at first, and afterwards flowing with fuller volume as we approach the years of the Irish famine and the climacteric of immigration. Within this New York era we note the foundation of the following parishes and churches:—

St. Peter's, Troy, 1826; its pioneer priests the Revs. McGilligan, John Shanahan, and James Quinn. St. John's, Schenectady, 1830, organized by the Rev. Charles Smith, of St. Mary's, Albany; its first pastor the Rev. John Kelly, succeeded by the Rev. Patrick McCloskey. St. John's, Albany, 1837; its first priest the Rev. John Kelly, and his successors, the Revs. McDonough and Patrick McCloskey. St. Patrick's, Watervliet, 1840; the earliest attending priest the Rev. John Shanahan, then pastor of St. Peter's, Troy. The Rev. James Quinn, assistant at St. Peter's, became first pastor of this parish, succeeded by the Rev. Thomas Martin. Church of the Assumption, Little Falls, 1841; its first pastor the Rev. Joseph M. Bourke. St. Joseph's, Albany, 1842: founded by the Rev. Joseph Schneller, then at St. Mary's, Albany, who was succeeded by the Revs. Newell and P. Hogan. The Rev. John J. Conroy, afterwards Bishop of Albany, was its first pastor. St. Mary's, Sandy Hill, 1833 (though first mentioned in the Directory in 1842); its first pastor the Rev. Father Guerdet. St. Mary's, Troy, was built in 1843 by the Rev. Peter Havermans. St. Augustine's, Lansingburg, 1844, had for its first pastor the Rev. F. Coyle.

The prominent laymen of this epoch were Peter Morange, Thomas Austen, James Mahar, William Hawe, Patrick McQuade, Peter Cagger, John Stuart, Thomas Geough, Thomas Mattimore, John Tracey, Dr. O'Callaghan, of Albany, John Keenan, of Glens Falls, Keating Rawson, Thomas Sausse, and Philip Quinn, of Troy.

Bishops of Albany.—(1) The Right Rev. John McCloskey, D.D. (afterwards Cardinal), consecrated Coadjutor-Bishop of New York, 10 March, 1844, transferred to Albany as its first bishop, 21 May, 1847. He first selected the venerable St. Mary's church as his episcopal city for his cathedral, and, that proving unsuitable, he began the erection of the cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, the corner stone of which was laid 2 July, 1848, by Archbishop Hughes. The edifice, completed with the exception of one of its twin towers, was dedicated 21 November, 1852. It is suggestive that the church was christened before the Immaculate Conception was declared an article of faith. He convened the first diocesan synod 7 October, 1855. To provide for the inrush of Irish immigrants he founded many parishes, encouraged the building of many churches, and augmented the number of his priests. The secular clergy proving insufficient, he invited the assistance of Jesuits, to whom he entrusted the large parish of St. Joseph's, in Troy. He was tireless in visiting every portion of his extensive diocese, which comprised all that territory now included in the dioceses of Albany, Syracuse, and Ogdensburg. He made provision for Catholic education by installing Religious of the Sacred Heart in Albany, and the Christian Brothers in Troy. He disarmed anti-Catholic and anti-Irish bias by the charm of his personality and the winsome graces of his consummate oratory.—(2) The Right Rev. John Joseph Conroy, D.D., consecrated 15 October, 1865. He built the beautiful St. Joseph's Church in the city of Albany, and established a home for the aged in charge of the Little Sisters of the Poor, and orphanages under the care of the Sisters of Charity and Christian Brothers in the same city. The secular clergy still proving inadequate for the growing and insistent needs of the ministry, he encouraged the Augustinian Fathers and the Minor Conventuals to cast their lot with the diocese. He secured the future of Catholic schools by establishing the celebrated convent of the Sacred Heart at Kenwood, and soliciting and welcoming foundations of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet, Mo., Sisters of Mercy, and Sisters of the Holy Names. The second diocesan synod was held in his episcopate.—(3) The Right Rev. Francis McNeirny, D.D., consecrated 21 April, 1872. He purchased the rectory for the cathedral clergy at 12 Madison Place, the chancery at 125 Eagle street, and the historic Schuyler mansion as an additional asylum. The Dominican Tertiaries, Sisters of the Good Shepherd, and Redemptorist Fathers established foundations at his invitation. He systematized the work of the chancery, formulated schedules for complete annual reports from each parish, and initiated the practice of convening synods of the clergy, administering confirmation, and canonically visiting every church in his diocese triennially. Clerical conferences, conducted with method and regularity, were his creation, and he closed his episcopate and his life with their crowning achievement-the enlargement and completion of the cathedral by the addition of an apse and the erection of new sacristies and a tower.—(4) The Right Rev. Thomas M. A. Burke, D.D., consecrated 1 July, 1894. He erected the school and rectory of St. Joseph's parish, Albany, whilst its rector, and evidenced administrative capacity of a high order in the management of its affairs. As bishop he has enlarged the Boys' Asylum in Albany, cancelled the indebtedness of the cathedral, refurnished and renewed it, and consecrated it with solemn ceremonial, 16 November, 1902. With characteristic exactitude for all canonical processes and require-