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ments in the matter of synods, visitations, erection of parishes, schools, homes of industry and charity, and the holding of church properties, he is indefatigable and continues the best traditions and labours of his predecessors.

Causes of Growth.—The growth of this see is explained entirely by immigration. The incentives to it were predominantly industrial. Agriculture played only a moderate part, and, as a rule, the land was second choice. In the early years of the last century New York State entered upon a vast scheme of internal improvements—the linking of the great lakes with the ocean by a system of canals. As Albany was the chief beneficiary of the enterprise, it became the principal distributing centre of the army of labourers who flocked into it in quest of employment. Work on the Erie Canal was begun in 1817 and completed in 1825. Development of the entire system of artificial waterways went on simultaneously. These opened up a vast uninhabited territory to tillage, colonization, and manufacture. From 1831 to 1852 railroad construction was under way, and as Ireland was then pouring into this country a flood-tide of fugitives from the famine, they found remunerative work at once. The earnings of these labourers were the chief contribution to the erection of contemporaneous churches. On the completion of the canals and railways, some of these strangers purchased land and began a farming life; most of them either threw in their lot with the new settlements sprouting promiscuously along the new lines of travel, or sought residence and employment in special localities because of their prosperous industries. Albany drew numbers because of its lumber, iron, stoves, shoes, cattle, and breweries; Glens Falls attracted by its flourishing lumber activities; Ballston by its tanneries; Cohoes by its axe industry, and cotton and woolen mills; Troy by the manufacture of stoves, nails, railway iron, and collars; Schagticoke and Amsterdam by their textile manufactures. During these years facilities of communication made access to most of the diocese comparatively easy, and the people were attended by a growing ministry. Its northern and lower western sections remained isolated and accessible only with great difficulty for many years, and here were some leakages from the Faith. Bigotry was rife in out-of-the-way corners, and met Catholic profession and practice with slander and slight—without violence, however. All this is superseded in our day by juster standards of measurement.

Notable Benefactors.—The Right Rev. John J. Conroy, the Right Rev. Monsignor McDermott, and the Rev. P. McCloskey left bequests for education. The Rev. Maurice Sheehan, the Rev. William Cullinan, and Mrs. Peter Cagger were generous patrons of St. Peter's Hospital, Albany. For various and large benefactions the diocese is indebted to John A. McCall, of New York; Anthony N. Brady, and Eugene D. Wood, of Albany; Thomas Breslin, of Waterford; Edward Murphy, Jr.; James O'Neil, Francis J. Molloy, Edmund Fitzgerald, Peter McCarthy, and Daniel E. Conway, of Troy. In the field of charity and Catholic usefulness, where fidelity to Catholic interests was and is a dominating principle of conduct, the names of Nicholas Hussey, John H. Farrell, Charles Tracey, Peter Cassidy, John W. McNamara, James F. Tracey, John P. McDonough, Edward F. Hussey, of Albany, and Edward Kelly, P.P. Connolly, Cornelius F. Burns, and Stephen Duffy, of Troy, deserve special mention.

Important Events.—Among the notable events of the diocesan history are the erection of the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (1848–52) and its consecration, 16 November, 1902; the phenomenally fruitful career of St. Joseph's Provincial Seminary, Troy, from 1865 to 1896, at which latter date it was transferred to Dunwoodie, Yonkers, N.Y.; the purchase and consecration of St. Agnes's Cemetery, Albany, 1867; the formation of the Diocese of Ogdensburg in 1872, and of Syracuse in 1886, both of them previously included in the Diocese of Albany; the incoming of the Sisters of Charity (1840), Jesuits (1849–1900), Christian Brothers (1851), Ladies of the Sacred Heart (1853), Augustinian Fathers (1858), Sisters of St. Joseph (1860), Sisters of the Holy Names (1865), Sisters of Mercy (1865), Minor Conventuals (1867), Little Sisters of the Poor (1871), Dominican Tertiaries of St. Catharine de Ricci (1880), Sisters of the Good Shepherd (1884), Redemptorists (1886).

Statistics.—The clergy now (1906) number 214, of whom 168 are diocesan priests, and 49 regulars (Franciscans, Augustinians, Redemptorists, and Salesians). The teaching Brothers are 55, among them 44 Christian Brothers. The Sisters, or religious women, number 698; parishes with resident priests, 105; missions with churches, 49. The parochial schools number 42, with 15,133 pupils (7,107 boys and 8,026 girls). A preparatory seminary (Troy) has 59 pupils. There are 2 colleges with 79 pupils, and 19 academies with 894 pupils. There are 11 asylums with 1,455 children; 3 hospitals with a daily list of 197 patients; 2 Houses of the Good Shepherd with 245 inmates; 2 Houses of Little Sisters of the Poor, with 328 inmates; 2 Houses of Retreat, kept by Dominican Sisters, with 35 inmates; 2 Homes for Women, with 15 inmates; and the Seton Home for Working Girls, with 20 inmates.

Brodhead, History of the State of New York (New York, 1853–71); Martin, Life of Father Jogues, (English tr., New York, 1896); Dongan Reports in vol. III of Documents relating to the Colonial History of New York (Albany 1853); O'Callaghan, Documentary History of the State of New York (Albany, 1849–51); Foley, Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus (London, 1877–83); John Gilmary Shea, History of the Catholic Church in the United States (New York, 1886-92); Howell-Tenney, History of Albany and Schenectady Counties (New York, 1886); Weise, Troy's One Hundred Years (Troy, 1891); Albany Argus, 26 Jan. 1813; O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland (New York, 1846–48).

Albenga, The Diocese of, comprises seventy-nine towns in the province of Port Maurice and forth-five in the province of Genoa, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Genoa, Italy. Legend makes Albenga between the years 121 and 125 the scene of the martyrdom of St. Calocero of Brescia, an officer of the court of Adrian. But the Acts of his martyrdom, together with those of Sts. Faustinus and Jovita with which they are incorporated, are not historically verified. The first bishop of whom we know anything is Quintius, who in the year 451 signed the Synodal Letter of Eusebius, Bishop of Milan, to Leo I, in which the condemnation of Nestorius and Eutyches was sanctioned (Mansi). Albenga contains 170 parishes; 485 secular priests; 86 regulars; 119,280 inhabitants; 354 churches and chapels; 90 seminaries.

Ughelli, Italia sacra (Venice 1722), IV, 910; Cappelletti, Le chiese d'Italia (Venice 1866), XIII, 529; Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiæ catholicæ (Ratisbon, 1873), 810; Niccolari, Cenni storici della città d'Albenga (1847); Cattolasso, Saggio storico sull' antico ed attuale stato della citta d'Albenga (Genoa, 1820).

Albergati, Niccolo, Cardinal and Bishop of Bologna, b. at Bologna in 1357; d. at Sienna, 9 May, 1443. He entered the Carthusian Order in 1394, served as prior in various monasteries, and was made Bishop of Bologna, against his will, in 1417. In this office he still followed the Rule of his Order, was zealous for the reform of regular and secular clergy, and was a great patron of learned men, among whom was Æneas Sylvius, afterwards Pius II. Martin V, and his successor, Eugenius IV, employed