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ALBRECHTSBERGER
ALBUQUERQUE
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delights in confessing his earnestness, diligence, and erudition in all that pertained to the apostolic period of England's conversion.

Bede, Opp. Hist. (ed. Plummer, Oxford, 1896, I, 3, 6; Hist. Ecc. Angl., v. 20, for Bede's references to Albinus; Stubbs in Dict. of Christ. Biogr., I, 70.

Albrechtsberger, Johann G., master of musical theory, and teacher of Hummel and Beethoven, b. at Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria, 3 February, 1736; d. in Vienna, 7 March 1809. He began his musical career as a choir-boy at the early age of seven. The pastor of St. Martin's, Klosterneuburg, observing the boy's talent and his remarkable industry, and being himself an excellent musician, gave him the first lessons in thoroughbass, and even had a little organ built for him. Young Albrechtsberger's ambition was so great that he did not even rest on Sundays and holidays. To complete his scientific and musical studies he repaired to the Benedictine Abbey at Melk. Here his beautiful soprano voice attracted the attention of the future Emperor Leopold, who on one occasion expressed his high appreciation and presented the boy with a ducat. The library at Melk gave him the opportunity to study the works of Caldara Fux, Pergolese, Handel, Graun etc. The result was the profound knowledge of music which gave him a high rank among theorists. Having completed his studies he became organist at the cathedral there, where he remained for twelve years. He next had charge of the choir at Raab in Hungary, and at Mariatfel. Subsequently he went to Vienna having been named choir-director of the church of the Carmelites. Here he took lessons from the court organist, Mann, who was highly esteemed at that time. Mann became his friend, as did also Joseph and Michael Haydn, Gassmann, and other excellent musicians. In 1772 he obtained the position of court organist in Vienna, which Emperor Joseph had promised him years before. This position he held for twenty years, and then became choir-master at St. Stephen's. Here he gathered about him a circle of pupils, some of whom were destined to become musicians of immortal fame. Among them Ludwig von Beethoven, Joseph Eybler, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Joseph Weigl and others. The Swedish Academy of Music at Stockholm made him an honorary member in 1798. Albrechtsberger will probably always hold a high rank among musical scientists, his treatise on composition especially will ever remain a work of importance by reason of its lucidity and minuteness of detail. His complete works on thoroughbass, harmony and composition were published, in three volumes, by his pupil, Ignaz Von Seyfried. His many church compositions, on the other hand, while technically correct and ornate, are dry, and betray the theorist. Of his compositions, only twenty-seven are printed, out of a total of 261; of the unpublished remainder, the larger part is preserved in the library of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde at Vienna.

Kornmüller, Lex. der kirchl. Tonkunst; Grove, Dict. Of Music and Musicians; Naumann, Geschichte der Musik.

Albright Brethren, The (known as the Evangelical Association); "a body of American Christians chiefly of German descent", founded, in 1800, by the Rev. Jacob Albright, a native of Pennsylvania (1759–1808). The association is Arminian in doctrine and theology; in its form of church government, Methodist Episcopal. It numbers 148,506 members, not including children, with 1,804 ministers and 2,043 churches, in the United States, Canada, and Germany.

Gess, Der Methodismus und die evang. Kirche Würtenberg (Ludwigsburg, 1876); Hundhauben in Kirchenlex., I, 423.

Albuquerque, Afonzo de (also Dalboquerque), surnamed "the Great", b. in Portugal, in 1453; d. at Goa, 16 December, 1515. He was second son of Gonzallo de Albuquerque, lord of Villaverde, and became attached to the person of the king of Portugal. He went to Otranto with Alphonso V in 1480, and made his first voyage to the far East in 1503, returning to Lisbon 1504. When Tristan de Cunha sailed for India in 1506, Albuquerque was one of his officers. He formed the plan to monopolize trade with East India for Portugal, by excluding from it both the Venetians and the Saracens, and therefore sought to make himself master of the Red Sea. For that purpose he seized the Island of Socotra and attacked Ormuz, landing 10 October, 1507, and raising fortifications. The attack was repeated in the year following, also at Cochim in December. When the Viceroy of India, d'Almeida, returned to Portugal, 1509, Albuquerque was appointed in his place. In 1513, King Emmanuel calls him "protho-capitaneus noster". Annoyed by constant hostilities of the people of Calicut, he destroyed the place on 4 January, 1510. To secure a permanent foothold on the coast of India, he took Goa in March, 1510, abandoning it two months afterwards, only to return in November, when he took the place again, and held it thereafter for the Portuguese. Once safely established on the eastern coast of what is generally comprised under the name of Dekkan, Albuquerque turned his attention to the organization of the colonies and to discoveries towards the farthest East. He took Malacca in July, 1511, and attempted to explore the Moluccas in the same year. In pursuance of his policy to prevent other nations from intercourse with India, he occupied a strong position at Aden, on the Red Sea, March, 1513, but about the same time the Turks had conquered Egypt and effectively barred access to the far East to all other nations except by sea. While Albuquerque was thus establishing Portugues colonization in India on a firm footing, and planning advances beyond Eastern Asia, the Crown of Portugal was listening to intrigues to his prejudice. Still it may be that the state of his health, greatly impaired through climate and strain, induced King Emmanuel to provide for a successor. Albuquerque was manifestly broken down physically. So Lope Suarez was sent to supersede him. The news of what he considered an act of ingratitude prostrated him, and although King Emmanuel recommended, in forcible terms to his successor to pay special deference to the meritorious leader, expressing, at the same time regret at having removed him from his high position, Albuquerque pined and died at the entrance of Goa, 16 December, 1515. Fifty-one years later his remains were transported to Lisbon, where a more worthy resting place had been prepared for them. Among the distinguished leaders and administrators that sprang up in southern Europe at the end of the sixteenth century, Afonzo de Albuquerque holds a very prominent position. His achievements, from a military standpoint, were more remarkable than any of the so-called conquerors of the New World; for he had to cope with adversaries armed very nearly like the Europeans, with hosts that were superior to any that were encountered by Cortez or Pizzaro, and had at his command forces hardly more numerous than those that achieved the conquest of Peru and Mexico. His enemies opposed him at sea, as well as on land, and they might, at any time, obtain succour from powerful Mohammedan states interlying between Europe and Asia. His only route for communication and relief was around the Cape of Good Hope. When, during the last five years of his life, he could at last turn to organization and administration, he proved himself a great man in this respect also. His religious zeal was not