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ALEXANDER 294 ALEXANDER letter to Cardinal lio.lrigo Borgia) is itself a tribute to the high spiritual ideal which for so long and on so broad a scale the Church has presented to the world in so many holy examples, and has therefore accus- tomed the latter to demand from priests. "The latter are forgiven nothing", says De Maistre in liis great work, " l)u Pape", "because everything is expected from them, wherefore the vices hghtly passed over in a Louis XIV become most offensive and scandalous in an Alexander VI" (II, c. xiv). The contemporary iliariea of Johann Burcharb and Stefano Infesscra are to be read with great caution, says Von Reomont, Kirchfntcx., I, 490-491. Burchard, Diarium eive rerum urbanarum commenUirii (1483-1506), in Eccard, Corpus Hisl. SS. Mfiiii .En. II, ed. by Genharelli (Florence, 1854); Thcasne (Paris, 18S3, 3 vols.); Infesshha, Diario della cittlx di Roma, in Eccard, Ioc. cit., and in Mura- TORI, SS. Rer. Ital., Ill, II, 1112-1252, ed. by Tommasini (Rome, 1890). — The principal events of bis pontificate are related in Raynaldus, Ann. Eccl. ad arm. 1492-1503. — Among modern writers the reader ma.v consult the Catholic historians. Von Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt Rom (Berlin, 1868), II, i, 199-249, also his article in KirchenUx., I, 4S3-491, and Pastor, History of Ike Popes since the Close of the Middle Ages (London, 1S98), V, 375 sqq.: among Protestant writers Gregorovius. Geschichte der Sladt Rom (Stuttgart, 1890), VII. 299-494, and his Lucrezia Borgia nach Urkunden uvA Corrispondenz (ibid,, 1870); alsoCRElGHToN, History of the Popes during the Reforma- tion (London, 1887 ), III, IV. See also Zopffel-Hauck, in the Realencyclopadie f. prot. Kirche u. Theologie (3d ed., Leipzig, 1896). I, 347-349, and J. Paquier, in Vacant, Diet. de (AcolcafA. (Paris, 1900), I, 724-727. The important Reio- zioni of the Venetian ambassadors to their senate are found in the collection of Alberi (Florence, 3d series. 1839-55). The reader is also referred to the valuable contemporary Diarii of the Venetian Marino Sanuto (Venice, 1879), I-XV. The Roman dispatches of Giustiniani to the authorities tf Florence were edited by Pasqhale Villari (Florence, 3 vols., 1876). The statements of Macchiavellt in It Principe, in the I^ltcre Famigliari, ed. by Alvisi (Florence, 1883), and elsewhere, are discussed by Pastor, op. cit., 15 sqq. For Ciesar Borgia see Alvisi, Cesare Borgia, Duca di Romagnola (Imola. 1878). There is an exhaustive bibliography of Alexander VI in Cheva- lier, Bio-Bibliographie, 2d ed. (Paris, 1905 ). The fair- est treatment of Alexander by a non-Catholic is that of Rich- ard Garnett in the Encyclopaedia Britannica and in the Cambridge Modern History. James F. Lodghlin. Alexander VII, Pope (Fabio Chigi) , b. at Sierma, 13 February, 1599; elected 7 April, 165.5; d. at Rome, 22 Mfv, 1667. The Chigi of Sienna were among the mast illustrious and pow'erful of Italian families. In the Rome of Renaissance times, an ancestor of Alexander VII was known as the "Magnificent". The fu- ture Pope's father, Flavio Chigi, nephew of Pope Paul V, though not as prosperous as his fore- bears, gave his son a suitable training. The latter owed much also to his mother, a w Oman of singular power and skill in the formation of youth. Tlie youth of Fabio was marked by continued ill-health, conse- quent upon an attack of apo- plexy in infancy. Unable to attend school, he was taught first by his mother, and later by able tutors, and displayed remarkable pre- cocity and love of reading. In his twenty-seventh year, he obtained the doctorates of philosophy, law, and theology in the University of Sienna, and in December, 1626, ho entered upon his eccle- siastical career at Rome. In 1027 he was ap- pointed by Urban 'III Vice-l.cgate of Ferrara, and hi: served five years under the Cardinals Sacchetti and Pallotta, whose commendations won for liim tlio important post of Inquisitor of Malta, together with the episcopal consecration. In 1639 he was pro- moted to the nunciature of Cologne; and in 1644 wa.s made envoy cxtraordinarj' of Innocent X to the conference of Minister, in "which post he ener- getically defended papal interests during the ne- gotiations that led, in 164.S, to the Peace of West- phalia. (See Thirty- Veahs' Wah.) Innocent X called him to Rome in 1651 to be his secretary of state, and in February, 1052, made him Cardinal. In the conclave of 1655, famous for its duration of eighty days, and for the clash of national and fac- tional interests. Cardinal Chigi was unanimously elected Pope. The choice was considered provi- dential. At a time wlien churchmen were being forced to realize the deplorable consetiuences, moral and financial, of nepotism, there was needed a ]>ope who would rule without the aid of relatives. For a year the hopes of Christendom seemed to be realized. Alexander forbade his relatives to come to Rome. His own sanctity of life, severity of morals, and aversion to luxury made more resplendent his virtues and talents. But in the consistory of 24 April, 1656, influenced by those who feared (he weakness of a papal court unsustained by ties of family interest, he proposed to bring his brother and nephews to assist him. With their advent came a marked change in the manner of life of the pontiff. The administration was gi^■en largely into the hands of his relatives, and nepotic abuses came to weigh as heavily as ever upon the papacy. The endeavours of the Chigi to enrich their family were too indul- gently regarded by the Pope; but, ever pious and devout, he was far from having a share in the ex- cesses of his luxury-loving nephews. His burden being in this way lightened, he passed much of his time in literary pursuits and in the society of the learned; but the friends whom he favoured were those who could be best relied on as counsellors. The pontificate of Alexander TI was shadowed by continual difficulties with the young and ill- adised Louis XIV of France, whose representatives were a constant source of annoyance to the Pope. Tlie French prime minister. Cardinal Mazarin, had not forgiven the legate who resolutely opposed him at the conferences of Miinster and Osnabruck, or the papal secretary of state who stood in the way of his anti-Roman policy. During the conclave he had been bitterly hostile to Chigi, but in the end compelled to accept his election as a com- promise. However, he prevented Louis XIV from sending the usual embassy of obedience to Alexan- der VII, and, while he lived, hindered the appoint- ment of a French ambassador to Rome, diplomatic affairs being meantime conducted by cardinal protectors, generally personal enemies of the Pope. In 1662 the equally hostile Due de Cr^qui was made ambassador. By his high-handed abuse of the traditional right of asylum granted to am- bassadorial precincts in Rome, he precipitated a quarrel between France and the papacy, which re- sulted in the Pope's temporary loss of Avignon and his forced acceptance of the humiliating treaty of Pisa in 1664. (See Louis XIV.) Emboldened by these triumphs, the French Jansenists, who recognized in Alexander an old enemy, became in- solently assertive, professing that the propositions condemned in 1653 were not to be found in the "Augustinus" of Cornelius Jansen. (See jAN.-iE- Nius.) Alexander VII, who as advisor of Innocent X had vigorously advocated the condemnation, con- firmed it in 1665 by the Bidl " .^d Sacram' declar- ing that it applied to the aforesaid work of Jansen and to the very meaning intended by him; ho also sent to France his famous "formulary", to be signed by all the clergy as a means of detecting and ex- tirpating Jansenism (q. v.). His reign is merao- ralilo in the annals of moral theology for the con- dcinn:i(i()n of a number of erroneous propositions. Cardiii:il Ilirgenrotlier praises ( 1, 4 1 4) his iiiodcration in the heated dogmatic controversies of the period. During his reign occurred the con- version of (^ueen Christina of Sweden, who, after her abdication, came to reside in Rome, where on Christmas Day, 1655, she was confirmed by the