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ALEXANDER 295 ALEXANDER Pope Alexander VII Pope, in whom* she found a generous friend and benefactor. He assisted the Venetians in combatine the Turks who liad gained a foothold in Crete, and obtained in return the restoration of the Jesuits, exiled from Venice since 1600. (See S. i'i, Venick, Jesuits.) The inimical rela- tions between S|);iiM and I'or- tuKaloccjusioned by the latter's cstalilishment of indeiwnilenco (Ki-lO) wore a source of grave trials for Ale.x- antlcr,;is for other jioixis be- fore and after him. .■lo.aiKler VII did much to beautify Home. Houses were lev e 1 1 e d to make way for straighter streets and broad p>iaz/.as, such as tliose of Colonna, and the CoUegio Romano. The decorations of the church of Sta. Maria del Popolo, titular church of more than one of the Chigi cardinals, the Scala Regia, the Chair of St. Peter in the Vatican I?:isilica, and the great colonnade before that edifice bespeak alike the genius of Bernini and the munificence of his papal patron. He was also a patron of learning, moaernized the Roman I'niversity, known as Sa- pienza, and enriched it with a magnificent library. He also made extensive additions to the Vatican library. His tomb by Bernini is one of the most beautiful monuments in St. Peter's. The public .locurnentM of .Me.xanilcr VII are fouml in Bullar. Rom. (e.1. Turin, isr,9), XVI-XVII: I'ai.i.avi< i.NO, Vita di Mrtaandro Vll i Prato. 1W9. 2 voUl; MuRATom. Annali dlVilui (Milan, 1,S20). .XVI. 14-75; Bargrave, Pope AUz- ander VII aivi Ou- CuUrof of CardinaU, a contemporary ac- count (e.l. Westminster. 181171; Ranke. The Popes of Home, their Church nn,l Stale (e<l. Kilinhurgh. 1847), II, 190 sq.. 502 so.; VoN Reumont. Fabi» Chit/i in Deutschland (Aix-la- Chapelle, 1885); /.' Conclave d'Alexandre Vll. a conclavist 'a reconi (OoloKne, lGr>7i; Rrvitr dea quettiona historiquea. July, 1871. A lenRthy Rtndv of the numerous proposition.^ con- demnerfcct education. His early studies were made with marked brilliancy at the I'niverxlty of Padua ((). v.1, whore, in 1(J27, he secured the doctorate in canon and civil law. He wont to Rome, dur- ing the pontificate of I'rban VllI (l(;j:i -H), and was made Arms or Alexander governor of Ternl, Rioti, and VIII Spoleto. For fourteen years he served as auditor of the Rota (q. v.). .t the request of the R"pul)lic this favoured son wjis made Cardinal by Inn<iccnt X (19 February, 1G52), and was later given the Blsli- opric of Brescia, in Venetian territory, where he quietly spent the best years of middle life. Clenv ent IX made him Cardinal- Datary. He was al- ready an octogenarian when elected to the papacy, and lived but sixteen months, during which time little of importance wtis done. Louis XlV of France. who.se political situation was now critical, profited by the i)eacefiJ dispositions of the new Pope, restored to him Avignon, and renounced the long- abused right of asylum for the French I';nil>;Ls.sy. (See Alex. deii Vll.) But the king's conciliatory spirit did not dissuade the resolute Pope from de- claring (4 August, 1690) that the Declaration of Galilean Liberties (q. v.), drawn up in 1682, was null and invalid. He assisted his native Venice by generous sulwidies in the war against the Turks, and he purchased for the Vatican library the books and manuscripts owned by Queen Christina of Sweden. He condemned the doctrine of a number of variously erroneous propositions, among them (24 August, 1690) the doctrine of "philosophical sin" (see Sin); ef. Denzinger, "Enchiridion Svmb. et Dcfin." (9th ed., Freiburg, 1900), 274-278; and Vacant "Diet, do th^ol. cath." (Paris, 1903), I, 748-76:?. Alexander was an upright man, gen- erous, peace-loving, and indulgent. Out of com- piLsslon for the poor of well-nigh impoverished Italy, he sought to succour them by reducing the taxes. But this same generous nature led him to bestow on his relations the riches they were eager to ac- cumulate; in their behalf, and to the discredit of his pontificate, he revived sinecure offices which had been suppressed by his predecessor. Kor the public documents of his pontificate pee BuUarium Rormmiim (Turin, 1870), .XX; Mcratori, ^nnoK d Italia (Milan. 1820). XVI. 200-21(1; Von Uanke, The Popea of Rome, etc. (ed. EdinburEli. 1S47). II, 278 fi.. 525 sq.; Gerin, Le Pajie .ileinndre Vlll el l.ouia XlV d'aprit dea docu- menla inedUa (Paris, IS7S); Bargrave (cited under Alexan- der Vin, chapter on Cardinal Ottoboni. J. B. Peterson. Alexander, Saint, who died in chains after cruel torments in the persecution of Dccius, was first Bishop of Cappadocia, and was afterwards associated as coadjutor with the Bisliop of Jerusalem, who was then 116 years old. This association came about as follows: Alexander had Ijeen imprisoned for his faith in the time of Alexander Severus and on being released came to Jerusalem, where he was compelled by the aged bLshop to remain, and assist him in the government of that see. This arrangement, how- ever, was entered into with the consent of all the bishops of Palestine. It was .lexander who per- mitted Orlgen, although only a layman, to speak In the churches. For this concession he was taken to task, but he defended himself by examples of other permissions of the same kind given oen to Origen liimself elsewhere, although tlion quite young. Butler says that they had studied together in the groat Christian school of Alexandria. Alexander ordained him a priest. Especial praise is given to .Mexander for the library he built at Jerusalem. F'inally, In spite of his years, he, with several other bishops, was carried off a prisoner to Ciosarea, and as the historians say, "the glorj- of his white hairs and great sanctity formed a double crown for him in captivity". He suffered many tortures, but sur- vived them all. Wlien the wild lx>iists were brought to devour him, some licked his feet, and others their impress on the sand of the arena. Worn out by his sufferings ho died in prison. This was In the year 2.51. His feast is kept by the Latins on 18 March, by the Greeks, 22 December. Acta Sanctorum. II, March; Botler, 18 March. T. J. Campbell. Alexander, Saint, known as "The charcoal burner," was Bishop of Comana, in Pontua.