Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/355

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ALL SAINTS 315 ALL SOULS' desired All Hallows "to be Apostolic, and to cease to exist, as soon as it ceased to be Apostolic." He wislied the professors to labour without stipend, and the students not only to be tuuglit and boarded, but to receive everj' collegiate coiivciiicii<-c, free of charge. The profes.sors of the college tlirougliout its history have been men of capacity and di.stinction, and men whose lives were according to 1-atlicr Hand's de.-;ire, modelled upon the teacliing and the e.xaniple of -M. Olier and St. Vincent de Paul. Among.st those who gratuitously gave their services to All Hallows the following deserve special mention: Dr. Bartholo- mew Wuodlock, Dr. Daniel Moriarty, Dr. Michael Flannery, Dr. Kugene O'Connell, Dr. (loorge Conroy, Dr. James McDevitt, and Dr. Patrick Dclany (Ho- bart), all of whom were elevated in coui-se of time to episcopal rank. To these should be added Dr. Thomas Bennet, Provincial of the Carmelites; Dr. Sylvester Barry, now Vicar-fieneral of Sandhurst; Monsignor James O'Brien, Hector of St. John's College in the University of Sy<Iney; Dr. John McDevitt, author of the "Life of Father Hand"; Father Thomas Potter, and Mr. Henrj' Bedford, the last two distinguished converts and men of literary eminence. It has been the aim of the directors of .ll Hallows from the beginning to form missionaries of a practical type, men who would throw themselves with .sympathy and zeal into the advancing civiliza- tion of the New World. In furtherance of this aim the studies, discipline, and general spirit of the college have been develoyied along certain definite lines. In an academic course of seven years three are devoted to physics, mental philosophy, lan- guages, and English literature; the remaining four years to Sacred Scripture, history, liturgy, canon law, sacred eloquence, and the science of theology. Throughout the entire period there are classes m elocution and in modern and Ciregorian music. Examinations, written and oral, are lield twice each year, supplemented by monthly revisions. Prayer, the sacraments, conferences, retreats, and friendly advice are the means used in the formation of char- acter. The students are encouraged to foster and strengthen the spontaneous spirit of piety, which is the heritage of most Irish children. They are also encouraged to develop health and manliness by outdoor exercises and recreations, such as football, hurling, hockey, handball, tennis, cricket, athletic competitions, and long walks. In 1892, in accord- ance with the wishes of the Irish Episcopate, the Vincentian Fathers undertook the direction of the college,, receiving at the same time the co-operation of several of the former professors. Two of these — Dr. William Fortune, President for a quarter of a centurj-, and Dr. Timothy O'.Mahony, Dean for al- most an equal period— fill respectively the senior chairs of moral and dogmatic tlieology. The entire teaching staff consists of fourteen professors, some of them Vinccntians, some secular priests, and some laymen. From twenty to thirty students are or- dained priests each year on the feast of St. John the Baptist, and sent to various parts of the English- speaking world. For instance, last sununer (1905) thirteen were ordained for the Australian mission, one for New iJealand, two for South Africa, seven for different dioceses of the United States, three for Canada, and one for England. The dioccsjin destina- tion of the missionaries varies each decade with the needs and advances of the Church; but, this fact apart, an easy computation shows that, during an existence of upwards of sixty years. All Hallows has sent aliout fifteen hundred priests to minister to the Irish "of the dispersion" m different parts of the New World. It is worthy of note that this supply of missionaries has been maintained during a period when Ireland herself posses.se(I few educational o|v portunities, and while her population, under stress of famine and enforced expatriation, was dwindling from eight millions to half that lunnber. At the present time about five hundred AII-Hallow.s-taught priests, including two archbisho|)s and twelve bishops, are scattered throughout Great Britain, the British Colonies, the United States, and the Argentine Republic. Si-e All Hallow in All Hallowt Annual (Dul)lin, 1902); Mo DtvriT, Life u/ Falhtr Hand (Dublin, 18S5). Thomas O'Donnell. All Saints, a feast of the highest rank, celebrated on the first of November, having a vigil and an octave, and giving place to no other feast. It is instituted to honour all the saints, known and un- known, and, according to Urban IV, to supply any deficiencies in the faithful's celebration of saints' feasts during the year. In the early days the Chris- tians were accustomed to solemnize the anniversary of a martyr's death for Christ at the place of martyr- dom. In the fourth century, neighbouring dioceses began to interchange feasts, to transfer relics, to divide them, and to join in a connnon feast; as is shown by the invitation of St. Basil of C;rsarea (397) to the bishops of the province of Pontus. Fre- ciuently groups of martyrs sulTered on the same day, which naturally led to a joint commemoration. In the persecution of Diocletian the number of martyrs became so great that a separate day could not bo assigned to each. But the Church, feeling that every martyr should be venerated, appointed a common day for all. The first trace of this we find in Antioch on the Sunday after Pentecost. We also find men- tion of a common day in a sermon of St. Ephrem the Syrian (.373), and in the 74th homily of St. John Chrj'sostom (407). At first only martjT^ and St. John the Baptist were honoured by a special day. Other saints were added gradually, and in- creased in number when a regular process of canoniza- tion was established; still, as early as 411 there is in the Chaldean Calendar a "Commemoratio Con- fessorum" for the Friday after Eiuster. In the West, Boniface IV, 13 May, 609, or GIO, consecrated the Pantheon in Rome to the Blessed Virgin and all the martyrs, ordering an anniversary. Gregory III (731-741) con.secrated a chapel in the basilica of St. Peter to all the saints and fixed the anniversary for 1 November. A basilica of the Apostles already existed in Rome, and its dedication was annually remembered on 1 May. Gregory IV (827-844) ex- tended the celebration on 1 November to the entire Church. The vigil seems to have been held as early as the feast itself. The octave was added by SLx- tus IV (1471-84). BnTLER, Livct of Uie Sainit; I.inoard, The Hittory and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church; Baring-Goui-d, Lirra o/ the Saintt: Binder, Allgemrine Realencyklo^urdie; Binterim DenkxcHrdigkeilen; Probst in KirchenUz.. Kkllner, HeortO' logie; Nilles, Kalendarium Manuale utrit9<iue Eecleaiae. FnA^■cls Mehshman. All Souls College. See Oxford. All Souls' Day. — The commemoration of all the faithful departed is celebrated by the Church on 2 November, or, if this be a Sunday or a feast of the first class, on 3 November. The Office of the Dead must be recited by the clergj- and all the Masses are to be of Requiem, except one of the current feast, where this is of obligation. The theological basis for the fca-st is the doctrine that the souls which, on de- parting from the body, arc not perfectly clcan.sed from venial sins, or have not fully atoned for p:ist transgressions, are debarred from the Beatific Vision, and that the faithful on earth can help them by prayers, almsdeeils anil especially by the sacrifice of the Ma.ss. In the early days of Christianitv the names of the departed brethren were entcretl m the diptychs. Later, in the sixth century, it w.is cus- toniarj- in Benedictine monasteries to hold a com