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ALITURGICAL 314 ALL HALLOWS 2 Shower's Rep. 282; Bishop, ^'ew Commeniariet on Mar- riage, DiiOTce and tieparadon (Chicago, 1891), I, § 1386 and note 1, II, 5S 855. 887. 925; Blkn, The Ecclesiastical Law, (9th ed., London. 1S42). 508. s. v. Marriage; Phillimore, The Ecclesiastical Law uf Uie Church of England (2d ed., London, 1895) U38. 042; Merrick, licrised Civil Code of the State of Louisiani (New Orleans, 1900), art. 230; for Scotch law, Wtso.n-Beli„ Dictionary and Digest of the Law of Scotland, (Edinburgh, 1890) s. v. AUment. Ch.rles W. Sloane. Aliturgical Days. — This term, though not recog- nized by any English dictionary, has lately come into use as "a convenient designation for those days on which the "liturgy", i. e. the Holy Sacrifice of the Eucharist, is not allowed to be celebrated. The term is warranted by moilern Greek example (dXciroup- yriTiKds.liturgia rarcns dies —KiWes, "Calendarium", II, 743 — though d(iTovpyr)o-la under the Empire commonly meant exemption from piblic burdens), and the "conception is much more familiar ainong the Eastern Cluirches than in the West. In the Roman Rite, in fact, there is only one day in the year which is generally recognized as aliturgical. This is Good Friday, on which, as is well known, the Holy Sacrifice is not offered; since the so-called " Mass of the Presanctified " which takes its place contains no praj'er of consecration, and the sacred Host which is consumed by the celebrant is one that has been consecrated on the preceding day. Strictly speak- ing, the Holy Saturday is also an aliturgic day in the West; for it is easy to show that the Mass which is now celebrated in the morning, after the blessing of the paschal candle and the font, belongs of right to the office of Easter Eve, and that in the early ages of the Churcli it was only celebrated after midnight at the close of the great Easter vigil. In the Am- brosian Rite, still retained in the Church of Milan, all the Fridays of Lent are also theoretically alitur- gical, and no Mass is celebrated on those days in the cathedral or the parish churches (see the sketch of Ambrosian practices in Magani, "L'Antica Liturgia Rornana", Milan, 1897, I). But the prohibition is evaded by many of the clergy who on these days say their Mass in convents and other privileged chapels where the Roman Rite is followed. In the Russian Orthodox Church at the present day the whole of the seven weeks preceding Easter are aliturgical, except the Saturday and Sunday of each week. Amongst these aliturgical days, however, certain differences are made, for on some of them the "service of the presanctified" (d/coXouWa tQv vpoTiyiaffixivuv) is celebrated in the evening. These days are the Wednesday and the Friday of the first six weeks of Lent, a very few minor festivals, and the first three days of Holy Week. The feast of the Annunciation, whenever it falls, is a liturgical day, but if it chances to coincide with Good Friday the feast is transferred to Easter Week. .Although we do not possess much which can be regarded as direct and clear evidence, there is every reason to believe that in early centuries of the Church aliturgical days were numerous both in East and West. In the beginning of things Mass seems to have been said only on Sundays and on the very few festivals then recognized, or perhaps on the anni- versaries of the martyrs, the bishop himself officiat- ing. To these occasions we have to add certain days of "stations" which seem to have coincided with the We<lnesday and Friday fa.st then kept regularly throughout the Church. Hut there is considerable doubt whether the liturgy was always celebrated on the.se days of stations, and we have indications in TertuUian and other writers of a current of opinion which tended to regard the offering of the Holy Sacrifice a.s inconsistent with the observance of a true and serious fa.st. In Alexandria in the fifth century we have direct testimony of the observances on certain fast davs of all the rites which belonged to the usual assembly of the faithful {synaiis), "with the exception of the celebration of the mysteries". This probably points to some kind of Mass of the Pre.sanctified. A letter of Pope Innocent I (401-417) to Decentius of Eugubium makes it clear that no Mass was said in Rome on Good Friday and Holy Saturday, and some writers ha'e wished to draw the conclusion that the same was true of all Fridays and Saturdays throughout the year. In Spain Canon xxvi of the Council of Eh-ira (300) may be quoted as evidence that the faithful at that time fasted every Thursday evening to the Sunday morn- ing, and that the liturgy was probably celebrated during the vigil of the Saturday night as the fast drew to its close. No doubt this practice followed the type of the Holy Saturday vigil. In the later centuries we can only be sure of certain isolated facts which argue considerable diversity of usage. Dom Germain Morin has shown that at Capua, in the sixth century, and also in Spain, Mass was cele- brated during Lent only on the Wednesday and the Friday. It is probable that a similar rule, but in- cluding the Monday also, obtained in England in the days of Bede or even later (see " Revue Benedictine ", 1891, VIII, 529). At Rome we also know ihat down to the time of Pope Gregory II (715-731), the liturgy was not celebrated on Thursdays. In the East, Canon xlix of the Council of Laodicea (365?), laid it down " that it is not lawful to offer bread in Lent except on the Saturday and the Lord's day", while the Council of Constantinople (in Trullo), in 692, speaks explicitly of the liturgy of the presanctified anil appoints it to be celebrated on all days of Lent, except the Saturday, the Sunday, and the feast of the Annunciation. Morin, in Diet, d'arch. chrct.. I, 1218-20; NiLLES, Calendarium Manuale (Innsbruck, 1897), 11, 251-253; Malt- EEW, Liturgikon (Berlin, 1902), 1G3-194; Duchesne, Chris- tian Worship, tr. (London, 1903). 249; Allatius, De Missd Presanctijicatorum (Paris, 1646), 12; Raible in Der Katholik (Mainz, Feb.-April, 1901). Herbert Thurston. All Hallows College, an institution devoted to the preparation of priests for the missions in English- speaking countries. In the year 1840 a young priest, the Reverend John Hand, who lived with a Vincen- tian community in Dublin without being bound by their rules, began to take a deep interest in the evangelization of his countrymen in English-speaking lands; and recognizing the homesteads of Catholic Ireland as excellent seed-beds of apostolic workmen — as, in a very true sense, pctits siminaires — he de- termined to consecrate his life to the foundation of a college destined exclusively for the education and equipment of missionaries. Such a project in the hands of one so young, unknown, and penniless, seemed chimerical; but Father Hand placed his trust in Heaven and in the traditional generosity of the Irish race. His first step was to go to Rome. There he received from Ciregory XVI a Rescript expressing the "fullest approbation of so holy an vmdertaking ". ITpon his return, aided by O'Connell, he obtained from the Corporation of Dublin a lease of a stately mansion on the north side of the city, and with it twenty-six acres of land which in the pre- Reformatiou days had belonged to the Priorj- of All Hallows (All Saints). On the 1st day of Novem- ber, 1S4'2, with the advice and encouragement of the venerable Archbishop Murray, he formally opened the college and bestowed upon it its present ap- propriate name. For four yetirs he conliiuied Presi- dent, directing the studies, establishing the finances, and organizing the professional staff. Then, worn out by solicitudes and labours, especially by the weary work of collecting funds from house to liouse in the city, and from parish to parish in the country, he died in the spring of 1840, leaving to others the legacy of an ample harvest. lofty and Celtic ideal had attracted and stimulated Father Hand. He