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ALMSHOUSE 331 ALOYsnrs The Fathers: — Clement of- Alexandria, Pardauoout. III. vi, P. a.. VIII, 603-007; li).. .S(roma(a, II, xviii, in P. U., VIII, lOlfl-SH; Cyril or Jkrumalem, CaUchttrt. XV, 2C., in P. a.. XXXIII. 907: EosEuius, llitt. Eccl., IX, viii. in P. G., XX. 818. 819; IUsil. .SVrmo dt EUmwuni, in P. O., XXXI. 1154-()7; Greoorv Naz.. De Amarc Pauperum, in P. a.. XXXV, 858-910; Chrvhobtom. De Eleemoai/nd, in P. G., XXI.;;91-300; Tertullian. Apologtticut, xxxix. in P. L.. I, 531-539: St. Auoustine. .SVrmo 35, 41. 4L'. fiO, 85, 80, in P. L., XXXVIII. 251 sq.; St. Gregory I. Morulia. XXI. xix, in P. L., LXXVI, 200-208. The doctrine of (he Fathers concerning this matter is exposed by Guionekert, TerluUian (Paris, 1901); Scara.melli, Directorium Aacetuum, IV.339-35e (tr., London, 1897); Balmes, ProteatantUm ami Cnthulu-ity Compared (UnUimoTe, 1851), 184 sqq.; Cuthbert, Cnlhulur Ideala in .Social Life (New York, 1904), 100 sqn.; Gaime. Caleehism of Perarvrrance (tr.. New York, 1890), II. 600 sqq,; Ireland. The Church and Modern Society (ChicaKo, 1897); ScHAEF. Hiatoru of Ihe Chrtadan Church, II. 374. 375; Uhlhorn, C'Ariaftan Charily in the Ancit'nt Church {New York, 1883); Warner, .Imfrtain Chariliea (New York, 1894); Locil. Charity Organization (Lonilon, 1893); Potter. The Co-apera- tiie Morement in Great Britain (London. 18S8); Crai-th. Prac- tical Chriali^in Sociolvgy (.New rk. 189C); The Chariliea Re- firw (New York, March, 1892; Feb., 1895; Jan., 1896; July and Aug.. 1897; Oct., 1898); Proceedinga of National Con- ferencea of Chariliea and Correcliont; Reporta of St. rtnc**n( de Paul Conferencea; Beugnet in Vic Diet, de la Bible (Paris. 1883). I. col. 1244-53. s. v. AumAne: Many in Diet, de thiol, rath. (Paris, 1893). fascicule IX. 2561 sqq., s. v. AumDne: OZANAM. Vic de Fred. Ozanam (Paris. 1882). iv, v; Lefebcre, L' organization de la charite pn'rtV en France (Paris. 1900); In.. Pana charitable et prHoyant (Paris. 1900); du Camp. La chariti privi'e it Paria (Paris, 1888); St. Thomas. Summa Theol., II-Il, QQ.. xxx-xxxiii; St. Alphonsus Liouori. Theol. Mor., Ill, tr. iii. dub. 3, no. 30 sq.; Suarez. De Charitate, Di-^p. vii; Billuart, Summa St. Thomce, tract. De charitate. Diss, v; Sporer. Throl. Mor. (Venice. 1716). I. tr. iii. vi, 52; Lavmann, Theol. Mor. (Padua. 1733). I, hb. V. tr. iii, vi; Ml LLER. Theol. Mor. (Vienna. 1899). lib. II. tr. i. 30 sq.; Leiimkuhl. Theol. Mor. {Spec.) (Freiburg. 1898), I, lib. II. ii, no. 605 .sq.; Boiquillon. Inat. Theol. Mor. Specialia (Bruges. 1890). lib. Ill, no. 493 sq.; Ballerini, Opua The- ologicum Morale (Prato. 1899), II. tr. v. §3. dub. 3. J.MEs David O'Neill. Almshouse. See Mon.steries, Suppuession of; Poor Laws. Alnoth, Saint, hermit and martyr; died c. 700. We know very little of St. Alnotlu Neither doe.s he appear to possess any proper clay. He is mentioned in Jocelyn s life of St. Wcrburg as a pious neatherd at Wecdon who bore with great patience the ill- treatment of the bailiff placeil over him, and who afterwards became a hermit in a very lonely spot, where he was eventually murdered by two robbers. On this ground he was honoured as a martyr; and there wa.s some concourse of pilgrims to his tomb at .^towe near Bugbrook in Northamptonshire. Acta SS., 27 February. Ill; .Staxtun. Mcnoloyy (London, 1892), 505; BAiiiNG-GoeLD, Livca of Sainta (London, 1804), II, 448. Herbert Thurston. Alogl (d privative and XA705, "word"; se. "De- niers of the Word"). St. Irena?us (Adv. Haer., Ill, ii, 9) makes a brief reference to persons who denied the manifestation of the Paraclete, and refused, in consequence, to admit the Gospel of St. John, wherein it is announced. He gives the party no name. St. Ilippolytus combated such an error both in his Syntagma and in a sixrial work entitled "In Defence of the Oospel of John and the .Apocalypse." These works are lost, but a good share of their con- tents is believed to have oeen preserved by St. Kpiphanius. St. Epiphanius (Haer. I.I) gives a long accoimt of the party of heretics who arose after the C'ataphrj'gians, Quartodecimaiis, and others, and who received neither the Oosijol of .St. John nor his Apocalypse. He calls them Alogi (deniers of the Word) becau.sc, by rejecting the Gospel of St. John, they rejected the /.oflo.s- which was revealed in that Gospel. Playing on the term, he observes, with a touch of sarcasm, that they are well named, "alogi", i. e. " without rea.son ". Tne.se heretics would seem to answer to the description of the obscure persons men- tioned by St. Irena>us, and this is in fact the prevalent opinion about them. The Alogi, accordingly, may be described as a partj' which arose in Asia Minor towards the end of the .second century. They doubtle.ss embodied a radical protest against the abu.se which the Montanists made of the promised Paraclete, and of the Paraclete's outpourings in visions and prophecies. This would explain why they were led to deny the Gospel of St. John, which foretold the coming of the Iioly Spirit, and why again they refu.sed all credit to the Af>ocalyp.se, which, with its description of the Heavenly Jerusalem and of the reign of a thousand years, fed the imagination of the enthusiasts of Phrygia. The Alogi attributed these two books to Cerinthus. It is not altogether clear that they denied, in addition, the Godhead of the Son and His eternal generation. St. Kpiphanius does, indeetl, say that they rejected the Loijos preached by St. John, but he is evidently [x;r- plexed by their stupidity in attributing to Cerin- thus a (lospel which w.as written against him. For Cerinthus taught that Christ was mere man, whereas John, in this very book, preaches His Godhead. It may, therefore, well be that the Alogi did not reject the doctrine itself but only the Loqos form under which the doctrine was presented in the Gospel. And .St. Epiphanius seems to imply as much, "for," he says, "they themselves seem to believe as we do." Be this as it may, the interest of scholars attaches not so much to their christology as to the biblical criticism they developed. It was, doubtless, a doctrinal prepossession which impelled them to reject the Gospel of St. John and the Apoc- alypse. But they endeavoured to maintain their contention by arguments drawn from an examina- tion of the })ooks thcm.selves. The Gospel of St. John contained, they said, what was untrue; accord- ing to them it was not in accord with the other Gospels, mixed up the synoptic order of events, and was, moreover, docetic in doctrine. They made still less account of the Apocalypse, which, they claimed, was often unintelligible, not to say puerile and false. Apropos of .poc. ii, 18, they asserted that there was no Christian church in Thyatira at the time. This anti-Catholic movement has been closely studied, since the Johannine question was broached in the last century, for further light on the position and authority of the Fourth Gospel in the early church. St. Iren., Adv. Haer., III. ii, 9: Philastrius, Ilaer., I.X; St. Epipii.. Haer., LI; KoRNER. De auct. Can. .•Ipor. Joh. ' '■}aia impufinata (Leipzig. 1751); Eus., Iliat. Eccl., HI, 28, I. Drummond. The Character and Authorahip of the Fourth ab Aloa Goapel (London. 1903); Rose. Alofjea, aaiatca et Rev, Bwlique, VI, 1897; Zaun, Geaehichte dea neuteatamenti. Kanona, I, 220-262; Coriwen, Monarchianiache Proloae zu den vier Evangelicn m Teste urut Vntersuchuuoen, 't»l, XV, No. I (Leipzig. 1896); Harnack. Lehrbuchdcr Doymenueichi'hte (3rd ed., 1894-97), tr. Hiatoru of Dogma (189.5-1900). III. 14-20. Francis P. Havey. Aloysius Oonzaga, Saint, b. in the castle of C.astigliime. 9 March, l.iO.S; d. 21 June, 1591. At eight he was place<l in the court of Francesco de' Medici in Florence, where he remained for two years, going then to .Mantua. .-Vt Brescia, when he was twelve, he came under the spiritual guidance of St. Charles Borromeo, ami from him received First Communion. In 1,581 he went with his f:ither to Spain, and he and his brother were made pages of James, the son of Philip II. While there he formed the resolution of becoming a Jesuit, though he first thought of joining the Di.'icalced Carmelites. He re- turned to Italy in l.")S4 after the death of the Infanta, and after much difficulty in securing his father's cousent, renounced his heritage in favour of his brother. 2 November, 1585, a proceeding which re- quired the approval of the emperor, as Castiglione was a fief of the empire. He presented himself to Father Claudius .cquaviva, who was then General of the Society. 25 November. l.'iS.'i. Before the end of his novitiate, he passed a brilliant public act in