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ALPHONSUS 341 ALSACE 8aint's life and timeA. This has recently been translated into Kiiglisli with ailditions and corrections (Dublin, 2 vols., royal 8vo); DuMORTlKR, Leg prrmih-ea Redemjttorigtinea (Lille, l8St»). and Le I'h-e Anioine-Marie Tannuin (Paris, 1902), contain nome useful information: as does Ht:nnrTi, Lo Spirito di S. Al- fonso Maria de Liguori,3 ed. (Home, isy(i). The Saint's own letters are of extreme value in supplementing Tannoia. A centenary edition. Leitrre di S. Alfonso Maria de'Liguori (Komc, isS7. 3 vols.), WHS publishc.! by P. Kuntz, C.SS.K., director of the Roman archives of Ins Congregation. An English tranilation in live volumes is included in the 22 vol- umes of the .-Vmcricaii centenary edition of St. .Mphonsus'a ascetical works (New York). There arc many editions of the Saint s Moral Theology; the best and latest is that of P. GAUIife, C.SS.K. (Rome, 1905). The Saint's complete dogmatic works have been translated into Latin by P. Walter, C.SS.R., 5. Alphonni Mariie de Litjuori Kcclesifr Doctoria Opera Dogmatica, (New York. 1903, 2 vols.. -Ito). See also Hab.sai,i.. The Balancr of Pouer (I71.'i-S9) (London. 1901); Cou-trrTA, llislon/ of the Kinudom of Saplet. 1734-182,5, 2 vols., tr. by S. Hohnkh (Edinburgh, IS.iS); Von Kklmont, Die Carafa I'on Maddnloni (Berlin, 18.51, 2 vols.); Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in South Italy. 2 vols, (t.ondon, 11)04). Collettas book gives the best general picture of the time, but is marred by anti- clerical bios. Harold Castle. Alphonsus Petrus. Sec Petrus. Alphonsus Rodriguez (.'tlso Ai.onsoI, Saint, b. at Segovia in Spain, 25 July, 1.532; tl. at Majorca, 31 Oc- tober, 1617. On account of the siniilarily of names he is often confounded with Fatlier Rodriguez the autlior of "Chri.stian Perfection", who though eminent for his holiness was never canonized. The Saint was a Jesuit lay-brother who entered the So- ciety at the age of forty. He was the son of a wool merchant who had been reduced to poverty when , was still young. At the age of twenty-six he married Mary Suarez, a woman of his own station in life, and at thirty-one found himself a widower with one surviving child, two others liaving die<l previously. From that time he began a life of prayer and mortification, altogether separated from the world around him. On the deatli of his third child his thoughts turned to a life in some religious order. Previous associations had brought him into contact with the first Jesuits who had come to Spain, HI. Peter Faber among others, but it was api)arentlv impossi- ble to carry out his purpose of entering tfie Society as he was without education, having only an incomplete year in a new college begun at Alcala by Francis Villanueva. .t the age of thirty-nine he attempted to make up this deficiency by following the course at the College of Harcelona. but without success. His austerities had also undermined liis health. After considerable tlelay he finally admitted into the Society of Jesus as a lay-brother, 31 January. 1571. Distinct novitiates had not as yet been established in Spain, and Alfonso began his term of probation at Valencia or at Gandia — this point is a subject of di-spute — and after six months was sent to the recently-founded college of Majorca, where he remained in the humble position of porter for forty-six years, exercising a marvellous influence on the sanctification not only of the members of the hou.sehold, but upon great numbers of people who cante to the porter's lodge for advice and direction. .mong the distinguislied Jesuits who came under his influence was St. Peter Claver, who lived with him for some time at Majorca, and who followed his advice in asking for the missions of South .Vmerica. The bodily mortifications which he impcsed on him- self were extreme, the scruples and mental agitation to which he was subject were of frequent occurrence, his obedience ab.solutc, and his absorption in spiritual things even while engaged on most distracting em- ployments, continual. It has been often saitl that he W!us the author of the well known " Little Ofhce of the Immaculate Conception", and the claim is made by .Megambe, Southwell, and even by the Fathers de Hacker in their Hibliotli^iiue de la Com- pagnie de Jesus, .part from the fact that the Brother had not the requisite education for such a task. Father Costurcr says positively that the Office he used wa.s taken from an old copy printed out ol Spain, and Father Colin asserts that it existed before the Saint's time. It may be admitted, however, that through him it wa-s popularized. He left a con- siderable number of MSS. after him, .some of which have been published as "Obras Espirituales del LJ. rtodriguez" (Barcelona, 188.5, 3 v<j1s,, octavo, com|)lete collection, 8 vols., in quarto). They have no pretensions to style; they are some- times only reminiscences of domestic exiiortations; the te.xts are often repeated; the illustrations are from every-day life; the treatment of one virtue occasionally trenches on anotlier; but they are re- markable for the correctness and soundness of their doctrine and the profound spiritual knowledge which they reveal. They were not written witli a view to publication, but put down by the Saint him.self or dictated to otiiers, in obedience to a positive com- mand of superiors. He was declared Venerable in 1626. In 1633 he wa.s cho.sen by the Council Oeneral of Majorca as one of the special patrons of the city and island. In 1760 Clement XIII decreed that " the virtues of the Venerable Alonso were proved to be of a heroic degree "; but the expulsion of the Society from Spain in 1773, and its suppression, delayed his beiitification until 1825. His canonization took place, (i September, 1887. His remains are enshrined at Majorca. GoLDlE. Life of St. Alonao Rodriguez in Quarterly Series (London, 1889); Vie admirable de St. Alphonse dapris les Mi-moires (Paris, 1890); Souuervooel, Bibliothiaue de la V. de J., VI. T. J. Campbell. Alphonsus Tostatus. See Tostado. Alpini, Phospkuo, physician and botanist, b. at Marostica, in the Kepublic of Venice, 23 November, 1553; d. at Pailua, 6 February, 1017. He studied metlicine at Padua from 1574 to 1578, taking his degree as doctor in the latter year. After two years spent at Campo San Pietro, he was appointed phy- sician to the Venetian Consul in Kgypt (l,58ti), which gave him a much desired opportunity of pursuing his cho.sen study of botany under conditions more favourable than he could find in Italy, aiul of which he took the fullest possible advantage. On his return to Venice, in 15!StJ, he became pliysician to .Vndre Doria, Prince of Melfi, and was looked upon in Oenoa, where he resiiled, as the first physician of his age. Ho returned to Padua in 1593, where he filled the chair of botany for many years. He wrote a number of meilical and botanical works in Latin, the most important being " De plantis .'Kgj'pti liber" (Venice, l.")92). It is said that his earlier work, " De -Medicina -F^gyptiorum " (Venice, 1591) contains the first mention, by a European writer, of the coffee- plant. Francis W. Grey. Alsace-Lorraine, The Germ.

Imperial Terri- 

tory so known, and divided for State purposes into three civil districts. Lower and I'pper .lsace and Lorraine include the two bishoprics of Strasburg and Metz, which are immediately subject to the Holy See. Christianity penetrated this region at an early Eeriod, partly owing to the presence of the Roman egions, whose duty it was to guard the boundaries of the Empire against the attacks of the Gernian hordes, partly through Roman merchants who traded with the Germans on the right bank of the Rhine. The first Hishop of Strasburg of whose name we are historically certain is St. .mandu3 (commemorated 26 October), who was present at the Councils of Sardica (313) and of Cologne (.316). The Lombard, Paul the Deacon, a contemporary of Charlemagne, names St. Clement I, one of St. Peter's immediate successors at Rome, as first Hishop of Metz. Prior to the French Uevolutiou the northern part of