ALSACE 343 ALSACE In 15 placed Up to 40 years of age $425 From 40 to 50 475 •• 50 to 00 525 " 60 to 70 575 Over 70 years of age 600 In 24 other places t400 450 500 550 575 The civil district of Lower Alsace pays the Bishop of Strasburg SI, 000 (4,000 marks) and each vicar- general and canon of the cathedral S300 (1,200 marks) as additional salary. Church T.vxes. — At the session of the Provincial Diet in 1901 the proposal was made on behalf of the Government that the increasing needs of the various denominations recognized by the State slioiild be met by means of the assessments, or church taxes, im- posed by the State. Only the Protestant churdi avithorities, however, have so far acted on this recom- mendation, so that only the Protestant taxpayers are liable to these special taxes. They amounted (in 19011) to SI7,2IS (188,870 marks 48 pf.), ami are applied to the increa.se of Protestant pastoral stipends and pensions;, and the support of widows and orphans. Kelkiioi's HorsEs. — Prior to the French Revolu- tion there were about 100 monasteries in Alsace, in addition to the canons regular of Strasburg Cathedral, three houses of canonesses and nine colle- giate churches. The following ortiers laboured in the country: .vigustinians, Benedictines (monks and nuns), Celestincs, Cistercians (monks and nuns), Poor Clares, the Teutonic Order, Dominicans (friars and nuns), Franciscans (friars and nuns), Jesuits (until the suppression of the Society), Johannitcs, Capuchins, Carthusians, Premon-stratensians, the Congregation of Our Lady, Sisters of St. Joseph, Sisters of the Visitation. In the Diocese of Metz there were, besides the cathedral chapter, eleven collegiate churches, three Augu.stinian canonries, nine Benedictine, four Cistercian, and three Premon- stratensian abbeys. There are now in the Dioce.se of Strasburg seven orders of men and twenty-one of women; Trappists at Olenberg, near Reinin- gen, since 1825; Capuchins at Konigshofen and Sidgolsheim (1888); Redemptorists at Bischenberg and Riedisheira (1896); Fathers of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and of the Immaculate Heart of Mary at Zabern (1900); Marist Brothers at St. Pilt (as home for the emcrili); Brothers of Christian Doctrine at Matzenheim, Zelsheim, and Ehl (1821); Brothers of .Mercy at Strasburg (1900); Trappist nuns at Ergersheim; Congregation of Our I.ady (of St. Peter Fourier) at Strasburg and Molsheim; Carmelite nuns at .Marienthal; Congregation of Maria Reparatrix at Strasburg; Benedictine nuns of the Perpetual .doration at Ottmarsheim; Benedictine nuns of the Blessed Sacrament at Rosheim; Domini- can nuns at Colmar; Sisters of the Good Shepherd at Strasburg and Miilhausen; Sisters of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus at Kienzheim; Sisters of Divine Providence at Rappoltsweiler; Sisters of Christian Doctrine at Strasburg; Sisters of Provi- dence at St. John of Bassel; Sisters of Perpetual .doration at Baronsweiler; Sisters of Mercy at Stra.s- burg (mother-house), and in many hospitals; Sisters of the .Most Holy Redeemer at Obcrbronn (mother- house), and in many hospitals and individual founda- tions; Sisters of the Holy Cro.ss at Strasburg (four hou.ses), Colmar, Sennheim, and Still; Sisters of .St. Joseph at St. .Marx near ( 'iclx-rschweier. and at Ebers- nuiiistcr; Little .Si.sters at Strasburg and Colmar; Institute of St. . thony at Strasburg; Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus at Dauendorf; Franciscan mins at Rheinackern and Thai. In the Diocese of .Mctz there are now five orders of men and twenty-one of women; Franciscans at Metz and Lubeln (1SS8); Redemptorists at Teter- chen (1896); Oblates of the Immaculate Conception of Mary at St. I'lrich; Fathers of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, and of the Immaculate Heart ol Mary at Neuscheuern (1904); the Brothers o( Christian Doctrine (of St. John Bapti-st de La Salle) at Metz; Sisters of Mercy (from Strasburg) in many hospitals; Benedictine nuns at Oriocourt; Sisters ol St. Charles Borromeo at Metz; Sisters of St. Christi- ana at .Metz; Sisters of Christian Doctrine at ChSteau- Salins; Dominican nuns at Rettel; Franciscan nuns at Metz; Sisters of the Good Shepherd at Metz; Servants of the Sacred Heart at Sey; Sisters of the Sacred Heart at P^pinville; Sisters of the ^'isitalinn at Metz; Little .Sistei^ at Borny; Sisters of the Holy Redeemer (from Nie<lerbronn) in hospitals; Sisters of Hope at Metz; Sisters of Christian Mercy at Metz; Sisters of the Divine Motherhood at Metz; Sisters of the Poor Child Jesus at Plappeville; Carmelite nuns at Metz; Sisters of the Heart of Mar>' at Vic; Sisters of the Divine Providence at St. John of Basle; Vincentian Sisters (of Metz) at Metz. These orders of women devote themselves chiefly to the educa- tion of girls, the care of the sick and to a contemplat ive life of penance. Clerical SEMiN. iES. — The Episcopal Seminarj-, together with the Episcopal University of Strasburg, consisting of faculties of theology and canon law, with f)ower to confer academic degrees, were closed at the French Revolution. When, however, Napo- leon, by Article XI of the Concordat, granted each bishop permission to establish a seminarj' in h'm diocese. Bishop Laurine, who was made Bishop ol Strasburg in 1802, immediately proceeded to open a seminary in his cathedral city in the followine year (1803), in which young clerics were educated during the course of the nmeteenth century. On the 5th of December, 1902, Cardinal Rampolla, Secretary of State, and the Prussian envoy to the Holy See, Freihcrr von Rotenhahn, came to an agree- ment concerning the erection of a Catholic theological faculty at the Kaiser-Wilhelm University of Stras- burg, which was accordingly opened in October, 1903, and in which the following subjects are taught: Preparatory instruction in philosophy and theologj-, dogmatics, moral theology, apologetics, church his- tory, Old and New Testament exegesis, canon law, pastoral theology, ecclesiastical archaology. The professors are chosen by the bishop and confirmed in their appointment by the Emperor; they are ob- liged to make a profession of faith, according to the forms and rules of the Church, in the presence of the Dean, before entering on their duties. The rules wliich govern the Catholic theological faculties at Bonn and at Breslau apply to the Strasburg faculty and its members, in their relations with the Church. If the ecclesiastical authorities submit evidence that a professor is unfit to continue his functions as teacher either lx;cause of lack of orthodoxy or be- cause of conduct imbecoming a elerg^-man, the State immediately provides a successor, and takes measures to terminate the offender's connection with the faculty. Alongside of this theological faculty the Episcopal Seminary continues to exist and gives the vovmg stidcnts a parochial training and education m all branches pertaining to the exercise of the priestly ollice. The seminarj', at the present time, IS managed by a superior, a director, and three pro- fc-s-sors. The cost of maintenance for the faculty falls exclusively on the State; the seven ordinarj-, and one extraordinary, professors who lecture before it, received in 1906, $11,875 (47,500 marks) among them, and $575 (2,900 marks) as extras. The clergy of the Diocese of .Metz are trained in the seminary at Metz by professors of the Bishop's nomination. Episcopal CiYMasi.. — Bishop Raess having re- fused to acknowledge the State supervision of the Prrparatorj' Seminaries at Strasburg (Lower .■ls;ice) and Zillishcim (I'piier .■Vlsace), which, up to then, had been wholly svibject to the diocesan authorities.
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