ALVAREZ 373 ALVAREZ personal bravery during the disastrous sally of Cortoz from Mexico in July, l.')20 (.Voc/ie Triste) and sul)seiiuently in the campaign and capture of the Indian stronghold (1521). In 1524 he conquered Ciuatemala, and became Governor of the Spanish frovince into which the territory was transformed. le soon undertook to fit out expeditions to the South Sea (with little result), and determined upon following Pizarro in the conquests of western South America. Sailing to the coast of Ecuador in 15.'54, with a well-equipped flotilla, and landing on the Ecuadorian coast, he pushed on to the plateau of Quito, to find it heUi by Belalcazar for Pizarro. Bloodshed appeared imminent between the rival parties. But the arrival of Almagro with instruc- tions from Pizarro led to negotiations, as a result of which Alvarado returned to Ciuatemala, having bartered to Pizarro most of his ships, horses, and am- munition, as well as most of his men, against a com- paratively modest sum of money. After his return to Guatemala, Alvarado turned his attention to northern Mexico. Constantly quarrelling with Cor- tez, he easily became the tool of the Viceroy Mendoza. He was in almost unceasing trouble witli his neigh- bour Montejo about the boundaries of their re- spective territories. While pursuing the pacification of Guadalajara, as lieutenant of Mendoza, he was killed in an assault on the Indian camp, on the rocky height of Nocliiztlan, 24 June, 1.541. His wife, DoHa Beatriz de la Cueva, lost her life in Sep- tember of the same year, in the destruction of the city of Guatemala by the volcano called "de Agua". Alvarado was not a gifted administrator; in fact, he was more distinguished for cliialrous bra^■ery than for intellectual gifts. Physically very pro- possessing, brave to excess, he was mentally greatly mfcrior to Cortez and to NuAo de Guzman, while morally their superior. What is told of the out- bursts of cruelty with which he is charged cannot surprise, when the methods of warfare prevailing in nis time are taken into consideration. He acted under the pressure of military necessity, and it is always well to test such charges by inquiring into their possibility and into the spirit of their authors. In estimating his conduct in Soutli America we must rememl)er that Alvarado was utterly helpless in pres- ence of the superiority of Pizarro. .Mvarado is so intimately ponnerted with the Conquest of Mexico that older works on that important event must be referred to. beginning with the reports on Gkijalva, Uvikdo, the letters of CouTEz, Bernal Diaz okl Castillo. ANimE.s dk Tapia .ouilar. Soarez Peralta, and others. . large num- ber of valuable documents (perhaps more important than the "histories") are published in the Documcnins in/tiitog de Irutiaa ancl some in the Coh-rruin de dncumenloa para la hintoria de Enpiiiia. Much important material has also been ac- cumulated in the Documentos para la hititorin de M^xiro, JoAgcfs Garcia Ycazdalceta (first series. II); Gomara anil Herhera: Uittoria de Miiico, by .Vntonio de Sons and others, like the Indian writers, Tezozomoc and Ixtlil- xorHiTL, Diego Dcran, and Juan de Tobar, also Tor- QCEMADA, Munarchia Indiana; V'evtia, Ilistoria antiffua de Ali^jrico. Moiiern writers on the romiuest of Mexico are so numerous that it is not possible to enumerate them. Al). E. B.NUEI,IEK. Al7arez, B.lth.zar, a Spanish mvstic, who was the spiritual director of St. Tere-^a, 1). at Cervera, in Spain, in 1533, of a noble family; d. at Belmonte, 25 July, 1.5S(). Ho stuiliod philosophy and theology in the I'niversity of Alcalsi. When only eighteen years of age, he was remarkable for his extraordinary habit of prayer and piety. His inclination was first towards the Carthusians, becau.se of their life of contemplation, but, finally, he entered the Society of Jesus, at Alcahl, in 1555, fifteen years after its foimdation. The famous Father Bustamente was his ma.iter of novices and subjected him to the rudest trials. In the novitiate of Simancas he met St. Francis Borgia, and llie strongest affection was sophical and theological studies at .lcalii and nlulo- Avila, imder the guidance of the Dominicans; for as yet the Society had no theologians of its own. The con- tinual interruptions of his studies impeded his progress in scholastic theology, but he conqjensated for it by the eminence he aciiieved, tlirough prayer, in mystical theology, which fitted him in a remark- able degree for the oflice he subsequently held as confessor, master of novices, rector, t)roviiuial, visitor, and as director of persons far advanced in the ways of holiness. He was made a jiricst in 1558, and, although only twenty-five years of age, was entrusted with the si)iritual direction of St. Teresa, then belonging to the mitigated Order of Carmel, but who was on the point of founding the Discalced Carmelites. Alvarez not only guided her in matters of the spirit, but defended her from her critics, encouraged her in her work of reform, and had much to do with framing the rules of the new Order. His direction continued for seven years. The Saint declared that it had been revealed to her that Father Balthazar had reached a very high degree of |H!rfection. He followed the usual method of prayer for sixteen years. After that he received a special gift of contemplation. In 1574 he was made rector of Salamanca and visitor of the Province of .ragon, and, in 1579, was about to be sent as provincial to Peru, but that project was never carried out. He was well on in life when his method of prayer was questioned. By some it was looked upon as a delusion of the devil. Alvarez wa.s com- pelled to WTite an account of it to the General of the Society of Jesus, Everard Mercurian, who ap- proved of it, but discountenanced it as a general practice. At the same time, he expressed his esteem lor Father AUarez and employed him in the most responsible offices. At liis death, St. Teresa had a revelation of his glory in heaven. Del Pcente. Vula dd P. Ballhavir Alvarez (tr. Houix); Nieremrero, Ideas de virtud, 348-97; Alcazar, Chrono. htsl. de la c. de J. en In prov. de Toledo, II, 023-34; De Backer, Bibliothtque de la c, de J., I, 107, T. J. Campbell. Alvarez, Diego, Spanish theologian, b. at Medina de Rio-.Seco, Old Castile, about 1550; d. at Traiii, Kingdom of Naples, 1G35. He entered the Domini- can Order in his native city, and taught theologj- for twenty years in the Spanish cities of Burgos, Trlanos, Plasencia, and Valladolid, and for ten years (1596- IGOC) at the Minerva, in Rome. Shortly after his arrival in Rome (7 November, 1596) he presented to Clement VIII a memorial requesting him to examine the work "Concordia liberi Arbitrii", by Ludovicus Molina, S.J., which, upon its publication in 1588, had given rise to bitter controversy. Before the Congregation (Congregatio de Auxihis), appointed by the Poix) to settle the dispute, he defended the Tnomistic doctrines of grace, predestination, etc., alone for three years, and, thereafter, conjointly witli Thomas de Lemos, O.P., to whom he gave the first place, until the suspension of the Congregation (IGOC). He was appointed. 19 March, KiOti, by Paul V. to the Archbishopric of Trani, where he pa.ssed the remainder of his life. Besides (1) a commentary on l.saias, and (2) a manual for preachers, he pul>- lislied: (.3) "Do auxiliis divinie gratiie et huniani arbitrii viribus et libertate, ac legitimd ejus cum effieacid oorumdem auxiliorum concordiii libri Xll" (Rome, 1610; Lyons, 1620; Douai, 163,5); (4) " Hi- siK)nsionum ad objectiones adversus concordiam liberi arbitrii cum divind pra^scienti.l, providentifl, et pra>destinatione, atnjie cum efi^icaciA pra'venientis gratiie, prout a S. Thomii et Thomistis defenditur et cxplicatur, Libri IV (Trani, 1622; Lyons, 1622); (5) " De origine Pelagiana- hirresis et ejus prog- ressu et damnatione |>er plurcs snmmos pontifices et concilia factii Historia ex annalibus Card. Baronii et aliis probatis auctoribus coUeeta" (Trani, 1629);
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