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ALVA 372 ALVARADO fanaticism he boldly entered the campaign against Paul IV, and wlieii the King offered an advantageous peace to the Pope, the L)iil<e exclaimed angrily that submission and timidity did not agree with politics and war. Alva, like his King, has been blackened savagely by prejudiced historians. As Jlauren- brecher says, the caricatures of both have their origin in the passionate apology for William of Orange. As to Motley's historical woik quoted above, Guizot remarks that "M. Motley exhibits in his u'ork both science and passion" (.Melanges biograph. et litt^raires, Paris, 1808). His judgment of Alva is neitlier objectively justified nor of defini- tive value. , „ , . . „ , . ^ . Meursius, Fcrd. Albanus, seu de Rebus ejus m Belgw Gestia, libri IV (Leyden. 1614; ."Vmsterdam, 1638); Strada, De Bella Belaico (Rome, U)40), I-II; De Vera y Fifcerva, Resullas de lavUn de F.rd Alvares de Toledo (IM3) 1-Y: Vita Ferd Tolet'ini, duels Albani (.'^alamanca, lb09): Vw du due d'AVbe (Paris, 1G9S); De Rustant, Hisloria de D. Ferd. Alvarez de Toledo, clamado el Grande, duque de Alva (Madrid, 1750), I-il; Prescott. History of the Reign of Philip II (Bos- ton 1855) I-III: NuYENS, Geschiedenis der Nederlandscke beroerten (Amsterdam. 1865), I-IV; Badmstark, Philip 11. Konig ron Spnnifn (Freiburg, 1875); von Ranke. Die Os- manen und die Sp'inische Monarchie im 16. und 27. Jahrh. (Collective ed.. X.KXV, XXXVI. Leipzig. 1877); Forneron, Histoire de Philippe 11 (Paris, 1881), I-IV; De Lettenhove, Les HuQuenots et les GueuT (Bniges, 1883-85), I-VI; Blok, Geschiedenis vnn het Nederlnndscke volk (Groningen. 1896), tr by Ruth Putnam, III; Bi.ok, History of the People of the Netherlands Part III, The War with Spain (New York and London, 1900). ^ ^ GiSBERT BrOM. Alva y Astorga, Pedro d', a Friar Minor of the Strict Observance, and a voluminous writer on theological subjects, generally in defence of the Im- maculate Conception; b. at Carbajales, Spain, toward the end of the sixteenth century; d. in Belgium, 1667. He took the Franciscan habit in Peru. He lectured on theology, was Procurator-General of the Franciscans, in Rome, and Qualificator of the Holy Office. He was an indefatigable traveller. His principal opponents were the Dominicans. His polemic had such a personal tone and was so violent that he was sent to the Low-Countries. Two editions of his work, " Nodus indissolubilis de conceptu mentis et conceptu ventris " (Madrid, 1661, 1663), are on the Inciex of prohibited books. His writings fill forty folio volumes. The most important is his "Armentarium Seraphicum pro tuendo Immacu- latiE Conceptionis titulo " (Madrid, 1648). In this he collaborated with the laest theologians of the Friars Minor. TonssAiNT in Diet, de thiol, cath., I, 926; Grammer in Kirchenlex. s. v. John J. a' Becket. Alvarado, Alonzo de, a Knight of Santiago, b. at Secadura de Trasmura, near Burgos, date unknown; d. 15.59. He came to America, and went to Peru with Pedro de Alvarado in 1534. He was no relative of the latter, however. While charged by some contemporaries with avarice and cruelty, it is un- deniable that during the trying period of civil wars in Peru (about 1537 to 1555) Alvarado was an unflinching and determined adherent to the interests of Spain. He always sided with those whom he thought to be sincere representatives of the crown, and it was not always profitable and safe to be on that side. Thus, in 1537, he commanded the troops of Pizarro's followers, when Almagro claimed Cuzco. Defeated and captured by the latter at Abancay, after elTecting his escape under great difficulties as well as dangers, and rejoining Pizarro, whom he looked U|)on as the legitimate governor of Peru, he took part iti all the bloody troul)k's that followed, always as a prominent militaiy leader and alwavs unsuccessful when in immediate command. Still, he was counted upon as a main.stay of the Spanish, and occupied a high military position. When Francisco Hernandez Giron raised the standard of rebellion in 1553, Alvarado was put in command of the forces to oppose him. At Chuquinga, in 1554. Alvarado suffered a signal defeat at the hands of the insurgents. Overcome by melancholy in consequence of that last disaster, he pined away and died five years later. His principal achievement, however, was the pacification of Chachapoyas in northeastern Peru, in the years 1535 and 1.536, this being the first step taken from Peru towards the Amazonian basin. Alvarado married in Spain, while on a short isit, in 1544. Documentos ineditos de Indias, Documentos para la historia de Espat^a. — The former especially contains a number of papers embodying valuable ilata on the military career of Alvarado. In the Relaciones geogrdficas de Indias (IV) there are data of a biographical nature, and relating to the oc- cupation of Chachapoyas, mostly taken from the (as yet unpublished) third part of the CrAniea del Peru, by Peuro DE Cieza. — ClEZA, Crdnica del Pent, first part, in Historiadores primitivos de Indias, by Vedia (Madrid, 1854). II; Zarate, Historia del descubrimiento y eonquista del Peru, also in Vedia's Historiadores, 11; Gutierrez de Santa Clara, Historia de las guerras civilea del Peru (Madrid, 1904-5 — only three vol- umes published as yet); Diego Fernandez, Historia del Peril (1571); the works of Gomara, Oviedo, Herrera, etc., and modern sources. Ad. F. B.wir>ELiER. Alvarado, Fn.w Francisco de, a native of Mexico, where he entered the Dominican order 25 July, 1574. He was vicar of Tamazulapa in 1593. Nothing more is known of him as yet, except that he wrote and published at Mexico, in 1593, a "Vocabulario en Lengua Misteca", one of the languages of the present state of Oaxaca. In the same year Fray Antonio de los Reyes, another Dominican, also published a grammar of that language, and at the same place. It is therefore impossible to determine to which of these works is due the honour of having been the first in and on the Mistecan idiom. Davila Padilla, Historia de la FundacitSn y Discorso, etc. (Madrid, 1596); Leon t Pinelo. Epitome (1628); An- tonio, Bibliot. Hispana Nova (Madrid, 1783); Beristain, Biblioteca hispano-amerieana (Mexico, 1816); Ycazbalceta, Bibliografia meiicana del Siglo XVI (Mexico, 1886); I.ude- wlG, Literature of American Aboriginal Languages (London, 1858). Ad. F. Bandelier. Alvarado, Pedro de. — Of the companions of Cortez, and among the superior officers of his army, Pedro de Alvarado became the most famous in history. A native of Badajoz, son of the commander of Lobon, he was made a Knight of the Order of Santiago in reward for his exploits in Mexico and Cen- tral America. He accompanied Gri- jalva on his ex- ploration of Yu- catan and the Mexican coast in 1518, and was the chief officer of Cortez during the conquest of Mex- ico. As such, he was left in com- mand of the forces at Tenochtitlan, when the conqueror had to move against Pilmfilo de Narvaez in 1520. During the absence of Cortez it became clear that the Mexi- . can Indians, to avail themselves of the weakness in numbers of the Spaniards, were preparing to fall upon them before Cortez could return. To forestall this, Alvarado, warned of the character of a ceremonial that was going on. as preliminary to an attack upon him, took the offensive, and dispersed the Indians witli some bloodshed (the numbers have been considerably exaggerated), but this only caused the Mexicans to begin hostilities at once. Alvarado distinguished himself by his military ability and Pedro de Alvarado