Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/421

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AMALFI 379 AMALRIOIANS when, after Samuel's death, Saul consulted his spirit in the cave at l^ndor, he was told that he was re- jected because he had not executeil the fierce wratli of God upon Ainalec (Newman's sermon, " Wilful- ness the Sin of Saul"). It was an Amalccite who clainicil, untrutlifuUy, it seems (II K., i.with I K,, xxxi), to liave given King Saul his deatli-l)low. While still a fugitive from Saul, David was bringing nearer to its climax the extermination of the doomed race. He was in the service of Aohis, King of Geth, in the land of the Philistines, near therefore to Amalecite territory. Witli his own men, and soldiers borrowed from .Vcliis, he raided the Anialccites and inflicted great .slaugliter, sparing not a soul (I K., xxvii). The .malecites retaliateil, during the absence of Daid and Achis, by burning Siceleg (Ziklag), a citv which .Vcliis had given to David, and carrying off all its inhabitants, including two wives of Davitl. David pursueil and overtook tlio enemy in the midst of feast and revel, recovered all the spod and captives, and slew all the .malucitcs except 400 yoimg men who escapeil on camels (xxx). This slaughter broke the power of tlic Amalecites and drove them back to their desert home; there a miserable renmant of them lingered on till the days of Ezechias, tenth succes.sor of David, when a band of oOO Simeonites sufficed to exterminate, to the last man, Israel's fiercest foe (I Par., iv, 42, 4.3). Thus on Mount Seir was fulfdlctl the doom passed on them by Mo.ses anil Balaam about six hundred years earlier. Their name occurs no more except m Ps. Ixxxii (reputed by many to be of the Macha- bean period) where the use cannot be taken as an historical datum, but is rather poetical, applied to Israel's traditional enemies. The Egj-ptian and As.syrian discoveries have as yet disclosed no mention of .malec. The Bible is our only witness, and its testimony, though sifted and questionetl in regard to many details, particularly in the accounts of the battles at Raphidim ami Cailes, and the marvellous victory of Gedeon, has been accepted in the main as a reliable account. Thomas in Vio., Did. de la Bible; Macprersos in Hast., Diet, of the Bibtt"; Jewish Encyclopedia, s. v. Amatek; Com- mentarios, Dillman and Delitzscu on Genesis; Dillman on Numbers. John V. Fenlgn. Amalfl, The Archdiocese of, directly depend- ent on the Holy See, has its seat at Amalfi, not far from Naples. This was a populous city be- tween the thirteentli and fourteenth centuries. An independent republic from the seventh cen- tury until 107.'), it rivalled Pisa and Genoa in its domestic prosperity and maritime importance. A prey to the Normans who encamped in the south of Italy, it became one of their principal posts. The Kmperor Lothair, fighting in favour of Pope Innocent II against King Roger of Sicily, who sided with the . tipope . acletus, took him prisoner in 1133, assisted by forty-six Pisan ships. The city was sacked, and Lothair claimed as part of the booty a copy of the Pandects of Justinian which was found there. Hut the early beginnings of .malfi are very obscure; it is not known when it was founded, or when Christianity reached it. That it was early is a rea,sonable conjecture, considering the facilities for communication with the Ea.st which the South of Italy po.s.ses.sed. The first positive indication that Amalfi was a Christian community, however, is supplied by Gregory the Great, who, writing in Jan- uarj', .")96, to the Subdeacon .Vntemius, his legate and administrator in Campania, ordered him to constrain within a mona.stery Primeniis, Bishop of Amalfi, because he <lid not remain in liis (hoce.se, but roamed about (Reg., V. xiv; cf. JafTi, RR.PP., 1403). .malfi was founded by Primenus in a. i>. ,'>96; the regular list of bishops began in 8J9; it was raised to an archbishopric by John XV in 987. In 1206, after the completion of the cathedral of St. . drew, the body of the Apostle of that name, patron of .Vmalfi, was brought there from Constantinople by Pietro, cardinal of Capua, an Amalfian. There are about 30,000 inhabitants. 54 parishes, and 279 .secu- lar priests, .malfi occupied a liigh position in medieval architecture; its cathedral of Sanl' Andrea, of the eleventh century, the campanile, the convent of the Capuccini, founded by Cardinal Capuanor, riclily represent the artistic movement prevailing in Southern Italy at the time of the Normans, with its tendency to Wend the Byzantine style with the forms and sharp lines of the northern architecture. In medieval culture .malfi vindicated a worthy place for herself, especially by flourishing schools of law and matliematics. Flavio Gioia, who made the first mariner's compasses known to lOurope, is said to be a native of .Vmalfi. But Gioia was not the inventor of the compass, which was invented in the East and brought to Europe by the Arabs. In hon- our of Charles II, a Capetian king then ruling Naples, Gioia put a fleur-de-lis instead of an N, to indicate the north. Capei.letti, /.« chiese d'ltalia (Venice, 18C6), XX. 601; Gams, Series epitcop. Eccles. calhot. (Katisbon, 1873); Pansa, Istoria dell' aniica republica di Amalfi (Naples, 1724); Sciiipa, La CTonaca Amalfitana. Ernesto Buonaiuti. Amalric, AnnoT of Citeaux. See Albigenses. Amalric I-IV, Kings of Jerusalem. See Jeru- salem. Amalric of Bena. See Am.lricians. Amalricians (Lat., Almarici, Amauriani), an heretical .sect founded towards the end of the twelfth century, by Amaury de Bi^ne or de Chartres (Lat., Almaricus, Amatricus, Amauricus), a cleric and pro- fessor in the University of Paris, who died between 1204 and 1207. The Amalricians, like their founder, profe.s.scd a species of pantheism, maintaining, as the fundamental principle of their system, that God and the universe are one; that God is evorj'thing and everything is God. This led them, naturally, to the denial of Transubstantiation, the confounding of good and evil — since good and sinful acts, so called, are equally of God— and to the consequent rejection of the laws of morahty. They held, besides, peculiar views on the Trinity, distinguishing three periods in the Divine economy with regard to man; the reign of the Father, become incarnate in Abraham, which lasted until the coming of Christ; the reign of the Son, become incarnate in Mary, which had endured until their own time; and the reign of the Holy Ghost, which, taking its beginning from the dawn of the fwelftii century, was to last until the end of time. I'nlike the Father and the Son, the Holy Ghost was to become incarnate, not merely in one individual of mankind, but in everj' member of the human race. Moreover, as the OKI Law had lost its efficacy at the coming of Christ, so, in their day, the law of the Gospel was to be supplanted by the interior guidance of the Holy Ghost, indwelling in each human soul. In con.sequence of this thev rejected the sacraments as obsolete an<i useless. Those in whom the Holy Spirit had already taken up His abode were called "the spiritualized", and were supposed to be already enjoying the life of the Resurrection. The signs of this interior illumination were the rejection of faith and hope, as tending to keep the soul in darkness, and the acceptance, in their place, of the light of positive knowledge. It followed from this, that in knowledge and the acquisition of new truths consisted their paradi.se; while ignorance, which meant adherence to the old order of things, was their substitute for hell. The .malricians, though including within their ranks many priests and clerics, succeeded for some